IN calculating the strength of a strut in compression, only two conditions of end fixing are usually considered: either the ends are regarded as pin‐jointed or as encastre. As the latter condition gives a critical load four times that of the former, in the case of long slender struts (i.e. large l/K), it is an important matter to determine the exact nature of the end fixings. In the majority of practical cases the strut is neither fully encastre nor is it as free from end constraint as a pin‐jointed strut, the actual condition being intermediate between these limits. There is thus a considerable amount of uncertainty as to the true strength of the strut.
Williams, D. (1933), "Critical Loads of Long Struts: The Case of a Strut with Elastic End Constraints of Finite Amount", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 5 No. 12, pp. 297-298. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb029753
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