CERTAIN types of strut, when tested in compression, fail by twisting. In such cases the twisting occurs suddenly at some critical compressive load corresponding to the incidence of torsional instability. This kind of failure is found in tests of “thin” section struts, of angle or channel section, for example, and sometimes in tests of “open” section struts with lattice or other light bracing, and is ascribed to the low torsional stiffness of such struts. The failure is often accompanied by a distortion of the sectional shape of the strut due to some secondary instability of section, but attention is here directed to the primary torsional instability involved.
Pugsley, A.G. (1932), "Torsional Instability in Struts: A General Theory of the Failure by Twisting of Certain Types of Strut in Compression", Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Vol. 4 No. 9, pp. 229-230. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb029591
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