Charles J. Fornaciari (Florida Gulf Coast University Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Charles J. Fornaciari, Uncommon Friends Chair in Ethics, Department of Management, College of Business, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965–6565. ( ))
John J. Sherlock (Western Carolina University)
William J. Ritchie (Florida Gulf Coast University)
Kathy Lund Dean (Idaho State University)

International Journal of Organizational Analysis

ISSN: 1934-8835

Publication date: 1 January 2005


This study identified and analyzed the 29 empirical articles which created 65 new scales that were published from 1996–2004 within the Spirituality, Religion, and Work (SRW) domain. Utilizing Hinkin's (1995) methodology for evaluating questionnaire scale development as a model, this study reviewed: (1) item generation issues such as inductive vs. deductive approaches; (2) scale development issues such as sampling and validity/reliability assessment; and (3) scale evaluation issues such as convergent validity testing. The study found that the vast majority of studies (86%) reported detail on the item development process for the new scales used; the primary method for item development was deductive, based on existing theory. In the area of scale development, only 45% of the studies reported using factor analysis for evaluation of constructs; of those that did, less than 25% of those reported information regarding factor retention criteria, such as eigenvalues. With regard to the internal consistency, the coefficient alpha was reported in only 45% of the studies. However, in those cases where scale development practices were described, the information was generally quite detailed and reflected statistical rigor. Few studies (38%) reported any information related to scale evaluation. Similar to Hinkin's (1995) conclusions from his review of scales in the management field, this study found scale development practices within the SRW domain to be inconsistent. The article reports detailed findings using Hinkin ‘s (1995) detailed methods and discusses practical implications for editors, reviewers and SRW researchers.



Fornaciari, C.J., Sherlock, J.J., Ritchie, W.J. and Lund Dean, K. (2005), "SCALE DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN THE MEASUREMENT OF SPIRITUALITY", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 28-49.

Download as .RIS



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2005, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below

You may be able to access this content by logging in via Shibboleth, Open Athens or with your Emerald account.
To rent this content from Deepdyve, please click the button.
If you think you should have access to this content, click the button to contact our support team.