The just‐in‐time (JIT) production system is notable for its emphasis on employee involvement and participation. However, we suggest that the role of participation that is most typically described in the organizational behavior (OB) literature does not match the type of participation practiced in JIT. We introduce a theoretical framework that accounts for these different perspectives: whereas the OB approach treats participation as an intervention and hence as an independent variable, the JIT approach sees it as a side effect of the JIT production system and hence a dependent variable. Understanding of the differences is essential in JIT implementation in the workplace if we are to avoid miscommunication, stress, and disbelief in the system.
Im, J.H., Hartman, S.J. and Folger, R. (1995), "PARTICIPATION IN AMERICAN VERSUS JIT SYSTEMS: IS IT THE SAME?", The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 138-155. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb028827
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