There is undoubtedly a need for description and understanding of the way in which firms, consumers and society at large interact in a market economy. The need is for description of the system as a whole as well as for distinct parts of it such as the market for certain goods or services in some geographic area or the market environment of specific firms or consumers. For those who merely want to adapt to the conditions of the market, description and understanding may be enough. For those who might want to direct changes in the system, an evaluation of the system and the effects of possible changes will also be necessary. This paper is intended as an aid in meeting such needs. The immediate reason for my attempts to find better methods of describing, understanding, and evaluating parts of the market system was a need felt on behalf of those government agencies and politicians who should try to make the system work as well as possible. I have especially felt that need in my work on problems of restraints on competition in Sweden.
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