A new four‐node (non‐flat) general quadrilateral shell element for geometric and material non‐linear analysis is presented. The element is formulated using three‐dimensional continuum mechanics theory and it is applicable to the analysis of thin and thick shells. The formulation of the element and the solutions to various test and demonstrative example problems are presented and discussed.
Dvorkin, E.N. and Bathe, K. (1984), "A continuum mechanics based four‐node shell element for general non‐linear analysis", Engineering Computations, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 77-88. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb023562
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