The Peaceful Kids Early Childhood Social‐Emotional (ECSEL) Conflict Resolution Program and curriculum was created to fulfill the need for a developmentally appropriate, theory‐based approach to promoting social‐emotional, cognitive, and conflict resolution skills' development in preschoolers (ages 2 to 6). From Fall 1997 through Fall 1999, an evaluation of this program occurred in 18 classrooms in day care/Head Start centers. Each classroom was randomly assigned to one of three conditions: ECSEL training for (1) day care staff, parents, and children, (2) day care staff and children (but not their parents), and (3) control, no‐training. As predicted, children in the condition where both parents and day care staff were trained showed significant increases in assertiveness, cooperation, and self‐control, and significant decreases in aggressiveness and socially withdrawn behavior. Parents receiving training showed significant reductions in authoritarian and permissive parenting styles and an increase in authoritative parenting style.
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