In many Western nations unemployment is much higher than official statistics indicate. Many who would work if the opportunities were there do not register as unemployed. Additionally, public funds are used to create an alternative labour market. In the UK, for example, measures introduced to boost employment include the Temporary Employment Subsidy; the Small Firms Employment Subsidy; the Job Release Scheme; the Special Temporary Employment Programme; Youth Opportunities; the Community Industry Scheme; the Adult Employment Subsidy; and the Short‐time Working Compensation Scheme. The cost of this panoply of measures is in excess of £400 million per annum, which when added to the disguised employment subsidies — special protection for certain industries, regional grants and the like — totals over £1 billion.
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