Attitudes towards job design are changing. Initially, managers were influenced by the concept of the division of labour, or specialisation. This consisted of breaking‐up the work into a series of distinct operations, the operations then being shared out amongst a group of workers. The scientific management group — Taylor, Gilbreth, Bedaux and the like — developed procedures by which work could be more ‘scientifically’ accomplished. They stressed the significance of physical activities, and their work — combined with the work of the early industrial psychologists on fatigue, training and optimum environmental conditions — led persons to believe that the industrial worker could, if given the right monetary reward, be ‘set up’ to produce maximal output.
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