There is much confusion and misunderstanding among students regarding the meaning and use of the word ‘heat’ in the subject of heat engines and applied thermo‐dynamics, and much argument among teachers as revealed by Mr Helsdon in his article published in your issue of August 1961. The points of difficulty need to be pursued from the point of view of introducing students to the first law (Q = δE + W or σQ = σE + σW) which involves, and distinguishes between, the funda‐mental concepts of work, heat and energy.
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