Environmental economics has typically adopted two approaches to the demonstration of the optimal level of pollution. The first superimposes a marginal pollution cost (MPC) function on the traditional model of the profit maximising firm and demonstrates that Pareto optimality requires the output price to be set equal to marginal social cost (MSC), defined as the sum or marginal private cost (MC) and marginal pollution cost. The second looks at the marginal pollution cost and compares it to the marginal cost of pollution control (MPCC). The optimum in this approach then exists when marginal pollution cost equals marginal cost of pollution control.
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