The short‐term effects of international immigration such as immediate unemployment and lowered occupational status, have been studied extensively (eg. Boyd, et al, 1980; Hartman, 1974; Matras, et al, 1976). International migration has been shown to have serious negative effects on occupational and educational achievement (Hartman and Eilon, 1973; Eilon, 1976; Hartman, 1981). For example the total number of years of education of immigrants under certain conditions is lower than their native counterparts, and may even be lower than the educational attainment expected from the person in his country of origin. Occupational achievement was found to be lowered immediately after immigration, and although it was found that some accelerated regain occurs for up to 10 years in the country, the migrant rarely attains the same achievements as his native counterparts (Eilon, 1976). Such consequences of immigration are bound to have long‐term implications for labour force participation throughout the working life and subsequent retirement provisions.
Hartman, M. and Hartman, H. (1994), "INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND RETIREMENT", International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Vol. 14 No. 6/7, pp. 25-57. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb013196Download as .RIS
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