Women are dramatically under‐represented in upper level managerial positions. Although they comprise about one‐third of all managers and professionals in the work‐force (Hellwig, & Tedeschi, 1986), women seem to confront a “glass ceiling” when they seek high level managerial positions. According to a recent survey of the 1,000 largest companies in the United States, less than 4% of their upper level managers are female (“Ten years later”, 1990). A more subtle problem, but one of equal concern, is the way in which women who do achieve managerial positions may be treated. There is good evidence to suggest that, relative to their male counterparts, many female managers encounter serious problems in areas such as pay, prestige of their positions, and evaluations of their abilities and performance (see, for example, Mount, & Ellis, 1989; Wittig, & Lowe, 1989).
Penner, L.A., Harris, S.L., Llobet, J.M. and Craiger, J.P. (1991), "Studying Personnel Decisions about Female Managers: Methodological Considerations", Equal Opportunities International, Vol. 10 No. 3/4, pp. 3-9. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb010544
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