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Studying Personnel Decisions about Female Managers: Methodological Considerations

Louis A. Penner (University of South Florida Louis A. Penner is Professor and Chair of the Psychology Department at the University of South Florida. He received his Ph.D. in Social Psychology from Michigan State University in 1969.)
Sandra L. Harris (GTE Data Services, Sacramento, California Sandra L. Harris is a field representative in the Human Resources Department of GTE Data Services in Sacramento, California.)
Jesus M. Llobet (NABANCO, Fort Lauderdale, Florida Jesus M. Llobet is currently working in the Personnel and Human Resources Department of NABANCO of Fort Lauderdale, Florida.)
J. Philip Craiger (University of South Florida J. Philip Craiger is a doctoral student in the graduate program in Industrial/Organizational Psychology at the University of South Florida.)

Equal Opportunities International

ISSN: 0261-0159

Article publication date: 1 March 1991



Women are dramatically under‐represented in upper level managerial positions. Although they comprise about one‐third of all managers and professionals in the work‐force (Hellwig, & Tedeschi, 1986), women seem to confront a “glass ceiling” when they seek high level managerial positions. According to a recent survey of the 1,000 largest companies in the United States, less than 4% of their upper level managers are female (“Ten years later”, 1990). A more subtle problem, but one of equal concern, is the way in which women who do achieve managerial positions may be treated. There is good evidence to suggest that, relative to their male counterparts, many female managers encounter serious problems in areas such as pay, prestige of their positions, and evaluations of their abilities and performance (see, for example, Mount, & Ellis, 1989; Wittig, & Lowe, 1989).


Penner, L.A., Harris, S.L., Llobet, J.M. and Craiger, J.P. (1991), "Studying Personnel Decisions about Female Managers: Methodological Considerations", Equal Opportunities International, Vol. 10 No. 3/4, pp. 3-9.




Copyright © 1991, MCB UP Limited

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