CARL HELWIG (Associate Professor in the School of Education at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia. He holds the degrees of A.B., A.M. (Case Western Reserve University, Ohio) and D.Ed. (Akron). Professor Helwig has published research findings in a number of journals)

Journal of Educational Administration

ISSN: 0957-8234

Publication date: 1 January 1973


Within the organizational setting of the school, the extant literature revealed five empirically‐determined variables to be manifestations one way or another of authentic behaviour, namely, Halpin's thrust and esprit on the Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire; Willower's pupil control ideology on the Pupil Control Ideology Form; Rockeach's dogmatism on the Dogmatism Scale, Form E; and ambivalence on Socman's Ambivalence Scale. On the other hand, Schutz's Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation Scale (FIRO‐B) determined an individual's expressed behaviour toward others as well as his wanted behaviour from others in three areas of interpersonal relationships: inclusion, control and affection. In other words, Schutz had demonstrated empirically that inclusion, control and affection parimoniously explained how two actors related to one another. The research question, therefore, posed was: Do an individual teacher's expressed as well as wanted behaviours of inclusion, control and affection, as predictor variables, predict (p <.05) his own esprit, thrust, pupil control ideology, ambivalence and dogmatism, the latter thus being the criterion variables?


HELWIG, C. (1973), "AUTHENTICITY AND INDIVIDUAL TEACHER INTERPERSONAL NEEDS", Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 139-143.

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Copyright © 1973, MCB UP Limited

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