The use of materials in marine environments has traditionally been associated with ships. However, in recent years, important new industries have grown up which present new material problems. Notable amongst such industries are offshore oil production and desalination (production of fresh water from seawater). Also, requirements for large amounts of cooling water by modern industry have often resulted in siting of plants by the ocean, particularly in arid areas such as the Middle East. This has increased interest in the use of materials for handling seawater.
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