After considering some ideas propounded in the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth century, the author discusses the concepts of “cybernetyka,” “tektology” and “holism.” Particular attention is paid to the ideas of Trentowski in respect of cybernetics. The problem of tektology is then studied in detail as enunciated by Bogdanov. This is followed by an analysis of holism based on Smuts' ideas. In the epilogue the author combines all these ideas and shows how cybernetics and general systems may become unitary.
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