The classical idea of model, as a system that can anticipate, in a finite time interval, the full behavior of a real system, is shown to lead to serious contradictions. An alternate formalism is proposed, in which only general features of the real system can be projected. From this new formalism, optimal experiments on the real system are derived. A discussion of the problem of uniqueness in modelling theory is included. As an area in which the classical idea of model is applicable without contradictions, anticipatory systems are analyzed. Some general features of these systems are considered. Finally, the projective system of an anticipatory system is fully described in terms of the state system.
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