Much attention in the field of international marketing has recently been focused on the need for adaptation of strategies to new environments. One aspect of this is the extent to which products and promotion require adaptation for success in foreign markets. Writers have advanced various guidelines as to when products and promotion strategies should be standardised versus adapted. Most of the literature on this topic is in reference to the operations of U.S. firms overseas, and few broadly based empirical studies are available to substantiate the theorising. We are given many individual examples, mostly of foreign marketing failures, with too little systematic analysis.
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