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Effect of second wave COVID 19 pandemic on anxiety level of senior citizens: a case study

Ajay Kumar Behera (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, India)

Working with Older People

ISSN: 1366-3666

Article publication date: 14 March 2022

Issue publication date: 28 November 2022




The purpose of this study is to explore the effect on distress of senior citizen’s anxiety levels in quarantine during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. This is a descriptive study, in which data were collected using the online survey method, a sociodemographic form, a semi-structured data form for second wave COVID-19, the anxiety-level scale and the distress scale.


Data were collected during the period when a curfew was imposed for the senior citizen. Data were analyzed using a structural equation model. According to the structural equation model, anxiety was determined as a predictor of distress.


The anxiety levels of the senior citizen who were 60–69 years old, female, single; had inadequate knowledge about the pandemic; and had not encountered a similar pandemic before considered that family bonding was affected negatively, so they became alone and reported that they became bored, exhausted and distressed during the pandemic, which increased their distress levels. Anxiety affects distress in the senior citizens.

Practical implications

One of the policy implications of this study is that governments should provide behavioral support to citizens during a pandemic. For example, short-term home-based psychological interventions should be developed to reduce the negative effects of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.


The anxiety levels increased distress levels for those senior citizens who considered their information about the second wave of COVID-19 insufficient; had hyper-emotionality; longed for their families; and felt tense, overwhelmed and lonely during the pandemic. In addition, factors such as constraints of flexibilities, prevention of socialization and decreased physical movements also affect distress in senior citizens.



Behera, A.K. (2022), "Effect of second wave COVID 19 pandemic on anxiety level of senior citizens: a case study", Working with Older People, Vol. 26 No. 4, pp. 342-354.



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