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Recycling intentions and behaviors among informal micro-entrepreneurs in Kelantan, Malaysia

Abdullah Al Mamun (Global Entrepreneurship Research and Innovation Centre (GERIC), Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa, Malaysia)
Roselina Ahmad Saufi (International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia)
Muhammad Mohiuddin (School of Business and Economics, Thompson Rivers University, Kamloops, Canada)
Syed Ali Fazal (Department of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Pengkalan Chepa, Malaysia)

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development

ISSN: 2042-5961

Article publication date: 13 February 2019

Issue publication date: 25 June 2019




As recycling is associated with various environmental benefits, it is important that it is encouraged in Malaysia. Taking the disappointingly low recycling rate in Malaysia as its backdrop, the purpose of this paper is to examine recycling intentions and behaviors among micro-entrepreneurs in Kelantan, Malaysia, drawing on the theory of planned behavior.


The study adopted a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling method to select 200 informal micro-entrepreneurs from Kota Bharu, Kelantan; then, quantitative data were collected through structured interviews. For data analysis, this study adopted variance-based structural equation modeling, i.e. PLS–SEM.


The findings indicated that environmental awareness had a significant positive effect on micro-entrepreneurs’ attitudes toward the environment. They also confirmed a positive and significant effect of attitude and perceived behavioral control on intention toward recycling and the effect of intention toward recycling on recycling behavior among the study sample.

Practical implications

Policies and programs focused on environmental awareness could nurture a positive attitude toward the environment, which, together with the capacities and resources available, could significantly influence the adoption of recycling behavior among informal entrepreneurs.


It is recommended that both public and private environmental protection and socio-economic development organizations combine their efforts to formulate and enforce policies and programs to promote recycling behavior among Malaysian entrepreneurs, which could spread the recycling spirit among all Malaysians.



Mamun, A.A., Saufi, R.A., Mohiuddin, M. and Fazal, S.A. (2019), "Recycling intentions and behaviors among informal micro-entrepreneurs in Kelantan, Malaysia", World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 123-138.



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