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Extraction of Cr from chrome containing leather waste to develop composite at optimum casting parameters using response surface methodology

Anas Islam (Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Mathura, India)
Shashi Prakash Dwivedi (Department of Mechanical Engineering, GL Bajaj Institute of Technology and Management, Greater Noida, India)
Vijay Kumar Dwivedi (Department of Mechanical Engineering, GLA University, Mathura, India)

World Journal of Engineering

ISSN: 1708-5284

Article publication date: 2 August 2021

Issue publication date: 11 January 2023




This paper aims to extract the Cr from chrome containing leather waste (CCLW) in order to develop composite at optimum casting parameters using RSM technique. Chrome containing leather wastes (CCLW) is one of the significant cause of pollution that is exhaled by the leather industries. One of the technique to address the problem of pollution that is created by CCLW is to recycle it and produce some fruitful results from it. This will not only minimize the levels of harmful emissions to some extent but also give some befitting results.


The current work is all about exploring the ways by which CCLW could be used as a reinforcing material with aluminum. In this work, alumina has been used as a secondary reinforcement particle together with CCLW as with the help of stir casting process. The parameters of stir casting have been optimized by using “Response Surface Methodology.”


To maximize the hardness and tensile strength the values of optimal input casting parameters as found by the experimental results (response surface methodology) are as follows: the pre-heating temperature of collagen and alumina must be 166 °C and 300 °C, respectively, while the wt.% of collagen and alumina present in the matrix must be 2.45% and 5% sequentially 180 s of stirring time.


The hardness of the finally tested composite is 67.12 BHN (approx) which has been enhanced by 52.54% as compared to the base material. Tensile strength of composite also enhanced about 18% with respect to base material developed at the optimum combination of casting parameters.



Islam, A., Dwivedi, S.P. and Dwivedi, V.K. (2023), "Extraction of Cr from chrome containing leather waste to develop composite at optimum casting parameters using response surface methodology", World Journal of Engineering, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 75-84.



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