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Tourism in Brazil: from politics, social inequality, corruption and violence towards the 2030 Brazilian tourism agenda

Gui Lohmann (Griffith Aviation, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia)
Heros Augusto Santos Lobo (Department of Geography, Tourism and Humanities, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil)
Luiz Gonzaga Godoi Trigo (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities (EACH), University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Vander Valduga (Department of Tourism, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil)
Rafael Castro (Department of Tourism, Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Petrópolis, Brazil)
Mariana de Freitas Coelho (Department of Administration and Accounting, Federal University of Viçosa, Vicosa, Brazil)
Marina Wöhlke Cyrillo (Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil)
Yoná Dalonso (University of the Region of Joinville, Joinville, Brazil)
Maria Henriqueta Gimenes-Minasse (Anhembi Morumbi University, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Marlusa de Sevilha Gosling (Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil)
Ricardo Lanzarini (Department of Tourism, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil)
Sergio Rodrigues Leal (Postgraduate Programme in Hotel Management and Tourism, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil)
Osiris Marques (School of Tourism and Hospitality, Federal Fluminense University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Verônica Feder Mayer (School of Tourism and Hospitality, Federal Fluminense University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Jasmine Cardozo Moreira (State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, Brazil)
Lauro Almeida de Moraes (Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil)
Alexandre Panosso Netto (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities (EACH), University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)
André Riani Costa Perinotto (Federal University of Piauí, Parnaiba, Brazil, and Ceará State University, Fortaleza, Brazil)
Ambrozio Queiroz Neto (Department of Tourism, Federal Center for Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Petrópolis, Brazil)
Fabia Trentin (Faculty of Tourism and Hospitality, Federal Fluminense University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
Sidnei Raimundo (School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities (EACH), University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil)

Tourism Review

ISSN: 1660-5373

Article publication date: 10 May 2021

Issue publication date: 26 January 2022

857

Abstract

Purpose

Different from most academic publications about tourism in Brazil, this paper provides an overarching and comprehensive perspective. Analysing key developments, and focusing on the period 2000–2019, this paper also considers long-standing structural issues that hinder tourism development. Although this viewpoint paper deals with Brazil, very similar issues can be identified for many countries worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This viewpoint paper is a combination of reflections by leading Brazilian tourism academics; most are members of ABRATUR, the International Academy for the Development of Tourism Research in Brazil. This paper uses secondary data from the grey (e.g. government reports) and academic literature to support this opinion paper. The tourism-related topics covered in this paper include economics, policy and planning, marketing, transport, nature-based tourism, gastronomy, hospitality and education, amongst others.

Findings

Brazil has missed several unique opportunities to place it as a destination of international renown. Since the 1990s, efforts to support regional tourism development have achieved only moderate success as political instability, violence and corruption have impacted tourism. A lack of a coordinated approach between the various levels of government, a shortage of tourism data and a long-term supra-government marketing campaign, among other factors, have meant Brazil has missed several critical opportunities in the 2010s to establish itself as a leading tourism destination in the global market.

Originality/value

From leading tourism academic experts in Brazil, a unique opinion paper offers an overview of the critical development issues in 2000–2019. The paper presents matters that have hindered potential tourism contributions to the largest nation in South America. While these matters may be specific to Brazil, many of these challenges are not dissimilar to those in other emerging (democratic) nations. The authors offer several public policies and technical recommendations to scaffold tourism development towards the 2030 agenda.

设计/方法/途径

本篇观点论文是巴西前沿旅游学者们思考的集合, 其中大多数的学者是巴西旅游发展国际研究院ABRATUR的成员。这篇论文使用了诸如政府工作报告的二手数据和学术文献来支撑文章观点。其中涉及的与旅游相关的主题包括经济学, 政策和规划, 市场营销, 交通, 自然旅游, 烹饪学, 酒店, 教育等等。

目的

与巴西大多数旅游研究的出版物不同, 本文提供了一个重要且全面的视角。文章重点分析了从2000-2009年的旅游业主要发展状况, 同时考虑了阻碍旅游业发展的长期结构性问题。尽管此观点论文涉及巴西, 但在世界许多国家都可以发现非常相似的问题。

结果

巴西已经错失了作为国际知名旅游目的地的几个独特机会。二十世纪九十年代以来, 因为政治动荡, 暴力和腐败对旅游业的影响, 支持区域旅游业发展的努力仅仅取得了有限的成功。各级政府之间缺乏协调方式, 旅游数据短缺和长期的跨政府营销活动等因素, 已经意味着巴西在二十一世纪前十年已经错失了将自己在全球市场中确立为领先旅游目的地的几个重要机会。

创新/价值

这篇来源于一些巴西学术旅游届的领头羊的独特观点论文概述了从2000年到2019年巴西旅游业发展的关键问题。本文介绍了那些已经阻碍南美洲最大旅游国家潜在旅游业贡献的重要事项。尽管这些事项可能是巴西独有的, 但是其中许多问题与其他新兴的(民主的)国家也没有什么不同。我们提供了一些公共政策和技术建议, 以支持旅游业向2030年议程迈进。

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este artículo de opinión es una combinación de reflexiones de destacados académicos brasileños del turismo, la mayoría miembros de ABRATUR, la Academia Internacional para el Desarrollo de la Investigación en Turismo en Brasil. Se utilizan fuentes secundarias (por ejemplo, informes gubernamentales) y literatura académica para respaldar este artículo. Los temas relacionados con el turismo que se tratan en este documento incluyen economía, política y planificación, marketing, transporte, turismo basado en la naturaleza, gastronomía, hotelería, y educación, entre otros.

Propósito

A diferencia de la mayoría de las publicaciones académicas sobre el turismo en Brasil, este artículo ofrece una perspectiva global e integral. Al analizar los desarrollos clave y centrarse en 2000–2019, este documento también considera problemas estructurales de larga data que obstaculizan el desarrollo del turismo. Aunque este documento trata de Brasil, se pueden identificar problemas muy similares en muchos otros países del mundo.

Resultados

Brasil ha perdido varias oportunidades únicas para colocarse como un destino de renombre internacional. Los esfuerzos realizados desde la década de 1990 para apoyar el desarrollo del turismo regional solo han logrado un éxito moderado debido a que la inestabilidad política, la violencia y la corrupción han impactado al turismo. La falta de un enfoque coordinado entre los distintos niveles de gobierno, la escasez de datos turísticos, una campaña de marketing supra gubernamental a largo plazo, entre otros factores, han significado que Brasil haya perdido varias oportunidades críticas en la década de 2010 para establecerse como un destino turístico líder en el mercado global.

Originalidad/valor

Un artículo de opinión único de destacados expertos académicos en turismo en Brasil, que ofrece por primera vez una visión general de los problemas críticos del desarrollo desde la década del 2000. El documento presenta asuntos que han obstaculizado las posibles contribuciones del turismo a la nación más grande de América del Sur. Si bien estos asuntos pueden ser específicos de Brasil, muchos de estos desafíos no son diferentes a los de otras naciones (democráticas) emergentes. Ofrecemos diversas recomendaciones técnicas y de políticas públicas para impulsar el desarrollo turístico hacia la agenda 2030.

Keywords

Citation

Lohmann, G., Lobo, H.A.S., Trigo, L.G.G., Valduga, V., Castro, R., Coelho, M.d.F., Cyrillo, M.W., Dalonso, Y., Gimenes-Minasse, M.H., Gosling, M.d.S., Lanzarini, R., Leal, S.R., Marques, O., Mayer, V.F., Moreira, J.C., de Moraes, L.A., Panosso Netto, A., Perinotto, A.R.C., Queiroz Neto, A., Trentin, F. and Raimundo, S. (2022), "Tourism in Brazil: from politics, social inequality, corruption and violence towards the 2030 Brazilian tourism agenda", Tourism Review, Vol. 77 No. 1, pp. 72-96. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-07-2020-0323

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited

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