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Minimizing conflicts between residents and local tourism stakeholders as a way to achieve sustainable tourism in Prague, Krakow and Braga

Bartłomiej Walas (Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, University College of Tourism and Ecology in Sucha Beskidzka, Sucha Beskidzka, Poland)
Adam R. Szromek (Faculty of Organization and Management, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland)
Zygmunt Kruczek (Faculty of Tourism and Recreation, Institute of Tourism, University School of Physical Education in Krakow, Kraków, Poland)
Miroslav Rončák (Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, Faculty of Physical Culture, Palacky University Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic)

Tourism Review

ISSN: 1660-5373

Article publication date: 21 November 2023




There is an ongoing discussion on tools that can lead to sustainable tourism, as well as attempts to implement them. In the selection of tools, the attitudes of residents – local stakeholders and their degree of acceptance of such tools should be analysed and taken into account. Some cause conflicts, and hence, the purpose of this study is the comparative analysis of three cities (Prague, Krakow and Braga).


Analysis of the basic types of conflicts was conducted using the division proposed by Moore. The research was conducted among residents – experts representing the tourism sector. Based on the literature review, three hypotheses were formulated. Statistical tests were used to analyse the results.


The results showed a strong impact of the conflict of information and the interests of those dependent on the degree of development of the city’s tourist function. It was established that in the process of achieving sustainable tourism, to minimize conflicts, the following are necessary: paying attention to communication and the involvement of local communities, creating attractions that benefit both residents and visitors, measuring and monitoring tourist traffic, supporting initiatives for new tourist offers and initiating discussions on development problems, and setting common goals for all residents.

Research limitations/implications

The research was conducted during the pandemic and is based on the opinions of experts indicated by the city authorities. While the attitudes of the inhabitants towards the development of tourism were recognized in earlier studies, the awareness of tourists and their readiness to accept limitations related to respecting the needs of the inhabitants were not examined. This aspect may be an interesting direction for further research. A limitation of this research is the small scope of the study, caused both by the restrictions in force during the research period (related to the COVID-19 pandemic) and also by the inability to conduct in-depth interviews with experts. It should also be noted that among the experts participating in the research were tourist entrepreneurs directly interested in rebuilding tourism after the pandemic. Due to this, their opinions may have been biased, but there is no way to prove or disprove this. However, the answers gathered were considered collectively; therefore, the opinions obtained were considered to be objective. Attempts to balance tourism so far have focused mainly on limiting the access of tourists to attractions and tourist areas and introducing (or increasing) admission fees. It is still too early to assess the effectiveness of such tools, hence the lack of scientific analyses of implemented tourism policies.

Practical implications

The role and tasks of institutions managing tourism in cities will probably also change, in particular, so-called destination management organizations. The current declarations indicate the need to respect inhabitants and take measures to limit conflicts arising in the context of the development of the tourist function. However, there is no empirical evidence of the positive results achieved.

Social implications

The results will allow the implementation of tourism balancing tools that are accepted by the local community.


The selection of the historical cities and the posing of a research problem based on the same tool allowed for comparative inference. The results can help shape tourism management in cities and the choice of tools for their sustainable development.


关于实现可持续旅游的工具以及运用这些工具的尝试始终是学界热议的话题。 在选择工具时, 应当分析和考虑居民和当地利益相关者的态度以及他们对工具的接受程度, 因为有些会引起冲突。基于此, 本文的目的是对三个城市(布拉格、克拉科夫、布拉加)的居民-当地利益相关者冲突进行比较分析。


本文采用摩尔提出的划分方法对冲突的基本类型进行了分析。 该研究是在居民——代表旅游部门的专家中进行的。文章基于文献综述提出了三个假设, 并 使用统计测试来分析结果。


结果表明, 信息冲突和利益冲突的强烈影响取决于城市旅游功能的发展程度。在实现可持续旅游的过程中, 为了尽量减少冲突, 有必要采取以下措施:注重当地社区的参与和沟通, 创造有利于居民和游客双方的景点, 测量和监测旅游流量, 支持旅游产品创新并发起针对发展问题的讨论, 同时为所有居民设定共同目标。


本文选择历史名城作为案例地, 加之基于同一工具提出的研究问题, 使得本研究具备用于比较推断的条件。 研究结果有助于塑造城市的旅游管理以及引导可持续发展工具的选择。


Hay un debate en curso sobre las herramientas que pueden conducir al turismo sostenible, así como los intentos de implementarlas. En la selección de herramientas, se deben analizar y tener en cuenta las actitudes de los residentes – agentes interesados locales y su grado de aceptación de dichas herramientas. Algunas provocan conflictos, de ahí que el objetivo de este artículo sea el análisis comparativo de tres ciudades (Praga, Cracovia, Braga).


El análisis de los tipos básicos de conflictos se realizó utilizando la división propuesta por Moore. La investigación se llevó a cabo entre residentes, expertos que representan el sector turístico. A partir de la revisión de la literatura se formularon tres hipótesis. Se utilizaron pruebas estadísticas para analizar los resultados.


Los resultados mostraron un fuerte impacto del conflicto de información y los intereses de quienes dependen del grado de desarrollo de la función turística de la ciudad. Se estableció que en el proceso de lograr un turismo sostenible, para minimizar los conflictos es necesario: prestar atención a la comunicación y a la implicación de las comunidades locales, crear atractivos que beneficien tanto a los residentes como a los visitantes, medir y monitorear el tráfico turístico, apoyar iniciativas de nuevas ofertas turísticas e iniciar debates sobre los problemas de desarrollo, y establecer objetivos comunes para todos los residentes.


La selección de las ciudades históricas y el planteamiento de un problema de investigación basado en la misma herramienta permitieron realizar una inferencia comparativa. Los resultados pueden ayudar a configurar la gestión del turismo en las ciudades y la elección de herramientas para su desarrollo sostenible.



Funding: The publication of the paper has been supported by statutory research ROZ 1: BK-274/ROZ1/2023, 13/010/BK_23/0072 at the Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Organization and Management.

Acknowledgements. The authors would like to thank the representatives of three cities for carrying out the research.

Conflicts of interest. The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Walas, B., Szromek, A.R., Kruczek, Z. and Rončák, M. (2023), "Minimizing conflicts between residents and local tourism stakeholders as a way to achieve sustainable tourism in Prague, Krakow and Braga", Tourism Review, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print.



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