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Understanding complex relationship among JIT, lean behaviour, TQM and their antecedents using interpretive structural modelling and fuzzy MICMAC analysis

Rameshwar Dubey (Symbiosis Institute of Operations Management, Constituent of Symbiosis International University, New Nashik, India)
Tripti Singh (School of Management Studies, Motilal Nehru National Istitute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad, India)

The TQM Journal

ISSN: 1754-2731

Article publication date: 12 January 2015




The purpose of this paper is to understand possible linkage between variables that constitute a lean manufacturing enterprise. In the study the authors have tried to decode the complex relationship among variables which is missing in extant literature.


In the study the authors have used systematic literature review (SLR) approach to identify the variables from extant literature and used interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and Fuzzy MICMAC analysis to understand complex equation among variables from Indian manufacturing firm perspective.


The findings using ISM modeling indicate top management support is the bottom level and business performance is the top level. In order to further resolve conflicts the authors have further analyzed variables using Fuzzy MICMAC analysis which has further divided variables into four clusters. The Fuzzy MICMAC output suggests that top management support, real time production information, training and team work are the driving variables and business performance, total quality management and lean behavior are the dependence variables.

Research limitations/implications

Like any study, the study have its own limitations. In the study the authors have developed the model based on expert opinion. The number may be not enough to validate this model statistically. However, it can be regarded as a platform for further investigation using structural equation modeling.


The present study using ISM model has proposed a model based upon experts, identified from Indian major manufacturing firms. This model can further provide empirical platform for further investigation which can resolve lean manufacturing issues.



The authors are extremely grateful to anonymous reviewers for their excellent suggestions and Editor-in-Chief for his support for obtaining best comments from reviewers. It will be really unjust the authors if do not express thanks to Managing Editor and Emerald team for their support in entire cycle right from submission till final publication.


Dubey, R. and Singh, T. (2015), "Understanding complex relationship among JIT, lean behaviour, TQM and their antecedents using interpretive structural modelling and fuzzy MICMAC analysis", The TQM Journal, Vol. 27 No. 1, pp. 42-62.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

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