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Understanding the process of patient empowerment and their well-being in the context of outpatient services

Malliga Marimuthu (La Trobe Business School, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia)
Seyedeh Khadijeh Taghizadeh (College of Economics and Political Science, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman)
Jay Kandampully (Consumer Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA)

The TQM Journal

ISSN: 1754-2731

Article publication date: 25 January 2022

Issue publication date: 29 November 2022




This study has conceptualized and empirically investigated how the psychological empowerment process is generated from a patient's cognitive knowledge and participation at different recovery places that results in a state of empowerment and predicts positive outcomes.


Data were collected from 150 physiotherapy outpatients who have been attending a series of physiotherapy courses at clinic and concurrently progressing with home physio exercise plan. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with SmartPLS software.


The results reveal that psychological empowerment best formed when patient centric knowledge is combined with place-based behavioral experiences that are gathered via healthcare encounters and experience patient gained outside of the clinic. Patients' involvement at different environmental settings contributes to patients' empowerment which further assists their well-being.

Practical implications

Understanding the process of empowerment in different environmental contexts can help healthcare organizations to better design patient empowerment strategies and support patients through the empowerment journey to demonstrate their capability to achieve more effective health recovery outcomes.


Patient empowerment is a concept of growing importance in the healthcare industry, yet the journey about how patients are being empowered within their sphere has not been well studied in the past. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first study that discusses the utilization of patient empowerment must be aimed at both the process and the outcomes. This study provides empirical insights to understand the factors that formulate patient empowerment and predicts positive patient outcomes such as feelings of well-being.



Marimuthu, M., Taghizadeh, S.K. and Kandampully, J. (2022), "Understanding the process of patient empowerment and their well-being in the context of outpatient services", The TQM Journal, Vol. 34 No. 6, pp. 1713-1731.



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