This paper aims to argue that the structure of the response to the World Trade Center (WTC) crisis can be characterized as an inter-organizational network and the majority of the activities can be identified as network management.
Using a mixed-method research strategy encompassing in-depth interviews and a sociometric survey, the authors characterize the response as an inter-organizational network and describe significant factors that facilitate the effective functioning and management of an emergency response.
The results provide empirical support for the claim that the management of the WTC response was very different from normal government operations in many respects. However, it was also found that complete detachment of the network-form of organization from bureaucratic hierarchy is not always possible in an emergency response, particularly in terms of leadership and the availability of resources.
The authors argue that bureaucratic leadership exists in political layers and is sometimes needed to provide social value to the general public and promote their engagement. Finally, the authors found evidence that the effectiveness of networks in an emergency response is influenced by certain enabling conditions, such as the severity of events, and suggest some implications for government operations.
The authors want to thank Hyuckbin Kwon for his helpful assistance in the development of the initial literature review for this paper. This study was partially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. EIA-0221927. The views and conclusions are those of the authors and do not necessary reflect the views of the NSF.
Gil-Garcia, J., Pardo, T. and Sayogo, D. (2016), "From bureaucratic machines to inter-organizational networks: Characterizing the response to the World Trade Center crisis", Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 568-590. https://doi.org/10.1108/TG-02-2016-0011Download as .RIS
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Copyright © 2016, Emerald Group Publishing Limited