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PLS algorithm for estimating quality rural electricity on household income in Tanzania

Bikolimana Giliadi Muhihi (Department of Community Development and Gender, Moshi Co-operative University, Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania)
Leopold Pascal Lusambo (Department of Forest and Environmental Economics, College of Forestry Wildlife and Tourism, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, United Republic of Tanzania)

Technological Sustainability

ISSN: 2754-1312

Article publication date: 30 March 2022

Issue publication date: 19 September 2022




This paper aims at discussing the impact of quality electricity on household income (HI) in rural areas with complementarities and intermediary resources context.


Partial least square-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used to estimate complex variables of quality electricity (QEC), development assets (DEA) and individual motivation (IMO) on rural HI. Age, education and gender were treated as moderators of antecedents for HI whilst household strength (HS) was treated as a mediator.


The findings show that QEC is an important predictor for HI in rural areas. In similar vein, land, social network, financial and physical resources cannot be undermined in bringing HI on stage. Moreover, IMO is a best complementary for electricity to bear impact on income. In fact, income cannot be equated with one factor; hence, moderating roles of education and gender should be considered.

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited to QEC, IMO and DEA as key resources which are associated with HI.

Practical implications

The findings should be twinned with rural development policy. There must be a multi-dimensional approach in diversifying development resources to the rural people for aggregated benefits.

Social implications

The rural communities remain in dire need of electricity which is a precious resource for income generation. Electricity works better with other resources.


Previous scholars have inferred HI in relation to electricity. Income is a function of many resources. This study inculcated complementaries and intermediaries along QEC. Unique PLS-SEM was used in rethinking some of the rethinking of QEC–income relationships.



Funding: This study was funded by the Federal Government of Germany through Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD) for in-country graduate programme (No: 91635589).

Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest in this work


Muhihi, B.G. and Lusambo, L.P. (2022), "PLS algorithm for estimating quality rural electricity on household income in Tanzania", Technological Sustainability, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 160-183.



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