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Training for enabling environments

Aldo Lombardo (Raymond Gledhill TC, Rome, Italy)
Rex Haigh (NHS, Reading, UK)

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities

ISSN: 0964-1866

Article publication date: 10 April 2017




The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the training value of a residential “enabling environments” (LLEE) workshop in relation to the Royal College of Psychiatrists’ (RCPsych) ten specified standards, as rated by workshop participants.


A 34 question yes/no/na questionnaire was drawn up, derived from the ten value-based standards and criteria which need to be met for the enabling environment (EE) award by the RCPsych’s Centre for Quality Improvement (Table AI). It was administered after six residential workshops, in Italy and UK, to 99 participants. Results were analysed for each of the six workshops, and for each of the ten standards, to show the degree to which participants recognised whether the standards were met.


High rates of positive responses were recorded with little variation across the six workshops sampled. Some standards and criteria showed higher levels of positive responses, and some showed slightly higher scores for “not applicable”.

Practical implications

Experiential Living-Learning Experience (LLE) workshops provide a valid training experience for those developing or working in EEs.

Social implications

Value-based standards can only be fully understood by direct experience of them, as verbal or written explanations fail to convey the psychological impact of the experience.


The questionnaire and its translation is the original work of AL. RH is the founder of LLE training workshops and the EE award.



Lombardo, A. and Haigh, R. (2017), "Training for enabling environments", Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 41-48.



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Copyright © 2017, Emerald Publishing Limited

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