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Interfacial reaction between Ni particle reinforcements and liquid Sn-based eutectic solders

Chung-Yung Lin (Chemical Engineering Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan)

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

ISSN: 0954-0911

Article publication date: 15 February 2021

Issue publication date: 12 July 2021




This paper aims to derive a model of growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed in the reaction between liquid Sn-based solders and Ni particle reinforcements and to compare with the experimental data to verify the effects of Sn concentration and alloying element.


A composite solder was manufactured by mechanically introducing Ni particle reinforcements into a solder matrix. The effect of the non-reactive alloying elements, Ag, Pb and Bi, on the growth kinetics of the IMC formed between liquid Sn-based eutectic solders and Ni particles, reacting this composite solder at 250°C–280°C was studied.


Experimental results showed that only the IMC Ni3Sn4 was present as a reaction product. Using the diffusion-controlled reaction mechanism, a kinetic equation quantifying both Sn concentration and alloying element effects was derived and verified by comparing the kinetic data obtained using four different solders with different concentrations of Sn and the alloying elements.


The similarity between the activation energies of these four solders confirms that the diffusion of Sn atoms through the IMC is the rate-controlling step. Besides, the kinetic values are independent of the geometry of Ni, whether spherical particle or flat substrate.



Lin, C.-Y. (2021), "Interfacial reaction between Ni particle reinforcements and liquid Sn-based eutectic solders", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 240-245.



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