To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below:

Convection vs vapour phase reflow in LED and BGA assembly

Barbara Dziurdzia (Faculty of Computer Science Electronics and Telecommunications, AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland)
Maciej Sobolewski (Fideltronik SA, Krakow, Poland)
Janusz Mikolajek (Fideltronik Poland Ltd., Sucha Beskidzka, Poland)

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

ISSN: 0954-0911

Article publication date: 27 February 2018

Issue publication date: 27 March 2018



The aim of this paper is to evaluate using statistical methods how two soldering techniques – the convection reflow and vapour phase reflow with vacuum – influence reduction of voids in lead-free solder joints under Light Emitted Diodes (LEDs) and Ball Grid Arrays (BGAs).


Distribution of voids in solder joints under thermal and electrical pads of LEDs and in solder balls of BGAs assembled with convection reflow and vapour phase reflow with vacuum has been investigated in terms of coverage or void contents, void diameters and number of voids. For each soldering technology, 80 LEDs and 32 solder balls in BGAs were examined. Soldering processes were carried out in the industrial or semi-industrial environment. The OM340 solder paste of Innolot type was used for LED soldering. Voidings in solder joints were inspected with a 2D X-ray transmission system. OriginLab was used for statistical analysis.


Investigations supported by statistical analysis showed that the vapour phase reflow with vacuum decreases significantly void contents and number and diameters of voids in solder joints under LED and BGA packages when compared to convection reflow.


Voiding distribution data were collected on the basis of 2D X-ray images for test samples manufactured during the mass production processes. Statistical analysis enabled to appraise soldering technologies used in these processes in respect of void formation.



This work was supported by the Statutory Funds (No. of the AGH Computer Science, Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty, Fideltronik Poland Ltd., Sucha Beskidzka and Institute of Electron Technology – Cracow Division.


Dziurdzia, B., Sobolewski, M. and Mikolajek, J. (2020), "Convection vs vapour phase reflow in LED and BGA assembly", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 30 No. 2, pp. 87-99.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2018, Emerald Publishing Limited