To read the full version of this content please select one of the options below:

Wetting characteristic of Sn-(3-x)Ag-0.5Cu-xBi quaternary solder alloy systems

Ahmet Mustafa Erer (Department of Physics, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey)
Serkan Oguz (Department of Physics, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey)

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

ISSN: 0954-0911

Article publication date: 8 August 2019



This paper aims to invastigate of the wetting and interfacial properties of Sn-(3-x)Ag-0.5Cu-(x)Bi (x = 0.5, 1 and 2 in Wt.%) Pb-free solder alloys at various temperatures ( 250, 280 and 310°C) on Cu substrate in Ar atmosphere.


In this study, new Sn-(3-x)Ag-0.5Cu-xBi systems, low Ag content quaternary lead-free solder alloys, were produced by adding 0.5, 1 and 2% Bi to the near-eutectic SAC305 alloy. The wetting angles of three new alloys, Sn-2.5Ag-0.5Cu-0.5 Bi(SAC-0.5 Bi), Sn-2Ag-0.5Cu-1Bi(SAC-1Bi) and Sn-1Ag-0.5Cu-2Bi(SAC-2Bi) were measured by sessile drop technique on the Cu substrate in argon atmosphere.


In accordance with the interfacial analyses, intermetallic compounds of Cu3Sn, Cu6Sn5, and Ag3Sn were detected at the SAC-Bi/Cu interface. The results of wetting tests show that the addition of 1 Wt.% Bi improves the wetting properties of the Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder. The lowest wetting angle (θ) was obtained as 35,34° for Sn-2Ag-0.5Cu-1Bi alloy at a temperature of 310 °C.


This work was carried out with our handmade experiment set and the production of the quaternary lead-free solder alloy used in wetting tests belongs to us. Experiments were conducted using the sessile drop method in accordance with wetting tests.



This study is supported by the project number 117M083 by TUBITAK 3001 Initiative Research and Development Project Support Program.


Erer, A.M. and Oguz, S. (2019), "Wetting characteristic of Sn-(3-x)Ag-0.5Cu-xBi quaternary solder alloy systems", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 32 No. 1, pp. 19-23.



Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited