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Influence of ultrasounds on interfacial microstructures of Cu-Sn solder joints

Xu Han (Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China)
Xiaoyan Li (Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China)
Peng Yao (Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China)
Dalong Chen (Faculty of Materials and Manufacturing, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China)

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology

ISSN: 0954-0911

Article publication date: 25 January 2021

Issue publication date: 12 July 2021

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the interfacial microstructures of ultrasonic-assisted solder joints at different soldering times.

Design/methodology/approach

Solder joints with different microstructures are obtained by ultrasonic-assisted soldering. To analyze the effect of ultrasounds on Cu6Sn5 growth during the solid–liquid reaction stage, the interconnection heights of solder joints are increased from 30 to 50 μm.

Findings

Scallop-like Cu6Sn5 nucleate and grow along the Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface under the traditional soldering process. By comparison, some Cu6Sn5 are formed at Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface and some Cu6Sn5 are randomly distributed in Sn when ultrasonic-assisted soldering process is used. The reason for the formation of non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 has to do with the shock waves and micro-jets produced by ultrasonic treatment, which leads to separation of some Cu6Sn5 from the interfacial Cu6Sn5 to form non-interfacial Cu6Sn5. The local high pressure generated by the ultrasounds promotes the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Cu6Sn5. Also, some branch-like Cu3Sn formed at Cu6Sn5/Cu3Sn interface render the interfacial Cu3Sn in ultrasonic-assisted solder joints present a different morphology from the wave-like or planar-like Cu3Sn in conventional soldering joints. Meanwhile, some non-interfacial Cu3Sn are present in non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 due to reaction of Cu atoms in liquid Sn with non-interfacial Cu6Sn5 to form non-interfacial Cu3Sn. Overall, full Cu3Sn solder joints are obtained at ultrasonic times of 60 s.

Originality/value

The obtained microstructure evolutions of ultrasonic-assisted solder joints in this paper are different from those reported in previous studies. Based on these differences, the effects of ultrasounds on the formation of non-interfacial IMCs and growth of interfacial IMCs are systematically analyzed by comparing with the traditional soldering process.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51575011) and Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 2162002).

Citation

Han, X., Li, X., Yao, P. and Chen, D. (2021), "Influence of ultrasounds on interfacial microstructures of Cu-Sn solder joints", Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 206-214. https://doi.org/10.1108/SSMT-06-2020-0026

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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