To read this content please select one of the options below:

Comfortable textile-based electrode for wearable electrocardiogram

Fatemeh Haghdoost (Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran)
Vahid Mottaghitalab (Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran)
Akbar Khodaparast Haghi (Textile Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran)

Sensor Review

ISSN: 0260-2288

Article publication date: 19 January 2015




The purpose of the current study is to explore the potential possibility of acceleration in recognition, remedial process of heart disease and continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) signal acquisition. The textile-based ECG electrode is prepared by inkjet printing of activator followed by electroless plating of nickel (Ni) particle.


The electrical resistance shows a range of around 0.1 Ω/sq, which sounds quite proper for ECG signal acquisition, as the potential difference according to heart activity on skin surface is in milivolt range. Surface modifications of Ni–phosphorus (P)-plated polyester fiber were studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractionmethods. The quality of the acquired signal from printed square-shaped sensors in two sizes with areas of 9 and 16 cm2 compared with the standard Ag/Agcl electrode using commercial ECG with the patient in the sitting position.


Comparison of these data led to the consideration of small fabric sensor for better performance and the least disturbance regarding homogeneity and attenuation in electric field scattering. Using these types of sensors in textile surface because of flexibility will provide more freedom of action to the user. Wearable ECG can be applied to solve the problems of the aging population, increasing demand for health services and lack of medical expert.


In the present research, a convenient, inexpensive and reproducible method for the patterning of Ni features on commercial polyester fabric was investigated. Printed designs with high electrical conductivity can be used as a cardiac receiving signals’ sensor.



The authors would like to express sincere appreciation from University of Guilan, Guilan Science Technology Park (GSTP) and Iran nanotechnology initiative for their financial and technical supports.


Haghdoost, F., Mottaghitalab, V. and Haghi, A.K. (2015), "Comfortable textile-based electrode for wearable electrocardiogram", Sensor Review, Vol. 35 No. 1, pp. 20-29.



Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2015, Emerald Group Publishing Limited

Related articles