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Analysis and monitoring of IoT-assisted human physiological galvanic skin responsefactor for smart e-healthcare

Partha Pratim Ray (Computer Applications, Sikkim University, Gangtok, India)
Dinesh Dash (National Institute of Technology Patna, Patna, India)
Debashis De (Maulana Abul Kalam Azad University of Technology, Kolkata, India)

Sensor Review

ISSN: 0260-2288

Article publication date: 13 June 2019

Issue publication date: 26 July 2019



Background: Every so often, one experiences different physically unstable situations which may lead to possibilities of suffering through vicious physiological risks and extents. Dynamic physiological activities are such a key metric that they are perceived by means of measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). GSR represents impedance of human skin that frequently changes based on different human respiratory and physical instability. Existing solutions, paved in literature and market, focus on the direct measurement of GSR by two sensor-attached leads, which are then parameterized against the standard printed circuit board mechanism. This process is sometimes cumbersome to use, resulting in lower user experience provisioning and adaptability in livelihood activities. The purpose of this study is to validate the novel development of the cost-effective GSR sensing system for affective usage for smart e-healthcare.


This paper proposes to design and develop a flexible circuit strip, populated with essential circuitry assemblies, to assess and monitor the level of GSR. Ordinarily, this flexible system would be worn on the back palm of the hand where two leads would contact two sensor strips worn on the first finger.


The system was developed on top of Pyralux. Initial goals of this work are to design and validate a flexible film-based GSR system to detect an individual’s level of human physiological activities by acquiring, amplifying and processing GSR data. The measured GSR value is visualized “24 × 7” on a Bluetooth-enabled smartphone via a pre-incorporated application. Conclusion: The proposed sensor-system is capable of raising the qualities such as adaptability, user experience, portability and ubiquity for possible application of monitoring of human psychodynamics in a more cost-effective way, i.e. less than US$50.

Practical implications

Several novel attributes are envisaged in the development process of the GSR system that made it different from and unique as compared to the existing alternatives. The attributes are as follows: (i) use of reproductive sensor-system fabrication process, (ii) use of flexible-substrate for hosting the system as proof of concept, (iii) use of miniaturized microcontroller, i.e. ATTiny85, (iv) deployment of energy-efficient passive electrical circuitry for noise filtering, (v) possible use case scenario of using CR2032 coin battery for provisioning powering up the system, (vi) provision of incorporation of internet of things (IoT)-cloud integration in existing version while fixing related APIs and (vii) incorporation of heterogeneous software-based solutions to validate and monitor the GSR output such as MakerPlot, Arduino IDE, Fritzing and MIT App Inventor 2.


This paper is a revised version R1 of the earlier reviewed paper. The proposed paper provides novel knowledge about the flexible sensor system development for GSR monitoring under IoT-based environment for smart e-healthcare.



The authors would like to thank Roshan Kumar Sharma, Shubham Pradhan and Animesh Chettri for helping in designing and conducting the study.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Ray, P.P., Dash, D. and De, D. (2019), "Analysis and monitoring of IoT-assisted human physiological galvanic skin responsefactor for smart e-healthcare", Sensor Review, Vol. 39 No. 4, pp. 525-541.



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