This paper aims to provide an overview of the New Zealand social enterprise (SE) landscape, identifying key influences, enablers of and barriers to SE. Initial mapping is undertaken to identify types of SE in New Zealand. The paper contributes to the wider International Comparative Social Enterprise Models mapping project.
Data collection combined reviews of previous scholarship with interviews with staff in SEs.
The New Zealand SE landscape is still emerging. The redevelopment of Christchurch following the 2010 and 2011 earthquakes has provided many opportunities for SE growth. Government support has been limited but is at least growing in terms of recognition. In 2014, the government provided base funding for developing SE infrastructure and capacity building, which is primarily delivered through the intermediary Akina Foundation. Resourcing is a key barrier to SE growth. Four main models of SE are evident: trading not-for-profits, community economic development, business-oriented social innovation and Maori enterprises.
The mapping presented is only a snap shot of current status, rather than a static model. Growth and developments in SE will see each category move as their SE activities develop.
Identifying and better understanding barriers and enablers will help further advance development of SE in New Zealand.
Scholarship on SE in New Zealand is limited. This paper brings together key literature as well as provides an initial attempt at mapping the SE landscape. Doing so provides a starting point for further discussion and analysis.
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