Liquidity hedging with futures and forward contracts

Yong Jae Shin (Department of Business Administration, Hankyong National University, Anseong, Republic of Korea)
Unyong Pyo (Goodman School of Business, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada)

Studies in Economics and Finance

ISSN: 1086-7376

Publication date: 24 June 2019



This paper aims to develop hedging strategies using both futures and forward contracts and issuing risky debt when financially constrained firms are forced to operate in long horizon.


The authors present a model for developing hedging strategies using both futures and forward contracts and issuing risky debt. A theoretical model employing stochastic differential equations for forward hedging is illustrated with a numerical example over parameter values consistent with the literature.


A financially constrained firm with limited cash balance must hedge its liquidity with both future and forward contracts and issue risky debt to support its long-term operations. The firm can issue a minimal amount of risky debt by adding forward contracts into hedging and can increase its value higher than that when hedging with only futures contracts. We show numerically that hedging with both futures and forward contracts allows the firm to issue minimal risky debt in increasing its firm value.

Practical implications

When Metallgesellschaft nearly collapsed in 1993, it offered long-term forward contracts to its customers and attempted to hedge its risk by rolling over series of short-term futures contract. It created the situation of inherent mismatch in maturity structure. A financially constrained firm operating in a long horizon appears to commit its liquidity as long-term forward contracts, which cannot be fully hedged with series of futures contacts. The firm should hedge its liquidity with both futures and forward contracts and avoid liquidation with deadweight costs in its long-term operation.


This is the first study examining hedging strategies with both futures and forward contracts.



Shin, Y. and Pyo, U. (2019), "Liquidity hedging with futures and forward contracts", Studies in Economics and Finance, Vol. 36 No. 2, pp. 265-290.

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