Bias against Latina and African American women job applicants: a field experiment

Astin D. Vick (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA)
George Cunningham (Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA)

Sport, Business and Management

ISSN: 2042-678X

Publication date: 10 September 2018



The purpose of this paper is to examine bias among White raters against racial minority women seeking employment in fitness organizations.


The authors conducted a 2 (applicant perceived racial identity) × 2 (applicant race) × 2 (hiring directive) factorial design experiment, with participant rater gender serving as the within-subjects variable. Adults in the USA (n=238) who had or were currently working in the fitness industry participated in the study.


Results indicate that applicant presumed racial identity and rater gender had direct effects, while applicant presumed racial identity, applicant race and rater gender had interactive effects, as well.


Results show that perceived racial identity affects raters’ view of job applicants, and the pattern of findings varies among racial groups.



Astin D. Vick and George Cunningham (2018) "Bias against Latina and African American women job applicants: a field experiment", Sport, Business and Management, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 410-430

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