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Greek sport fans' evaluation of football leagues' brand associations and their influence on brand loyalty. The case of UEFA champions league

Michael Anagnostou (Buckinghamshire New University, UCFB, London, UK)
George Tzetzis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece)

Sport, Business and Management

ISSN: 2042-678X

Article publication date: 18 May 2021

Issue publication date: 20 July 2021



The purpose of this research was to develop a scale to measure the football league brand associations such as the “UEFA Champions League” and to investigate their influence on brand loyalty.


A questionnaire was developed and tested through a pilot test (N = 120) and the final questionnaire was administered among Greek sport spectators (N = 460). The factor structure was tested through an exploratory factor analysis and a regression analysis was used to examine the predictability of fans' brand loyalty by the league brand association dimensions.


Six brand association factors were revealed through the exploratory factor analysis: elite management, entertainment, elite-sportsmanship participants, escape, elite refereeing and corporate identity. In addition, new brand associations and elements were found: elite refereeing which included fast football and the league anthem was found to coexist with logo. Elite management, entertainment, escape and corporate identity were found to influence brand loyalty variables.

Practical implications

The study revealed a useful tool to measure sport leagues' brand associations, to measure their influence on Greek fans' loyalty and build strong, unique and favourable consumer-based brand associations.


The paper contributes to the sports brand associations research by examining brand associations in the context of European leagues and elite-level football competitions. It also contributes by identifying and revealing new brand associations and new elements to co-exist with other already known sports brand associations. Finally, it examines the influence of the new brand-specific associations to the brand loyalty of the “UEFA Champions League” competition for Greek sport fans.



Anagnostou, M. and Tzetzis, G. (2021), "Greek sport fans' evaluation of football leagues' brand associations and their influence on brand loyalty. The case of UEFA champions league", Sport, Business and Management, Vol. 11 No. 4, pp. 430-450.



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