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Does it matter where you live? Examining the impact of gender, gender egalitarianism and city context on the work–family interface

Ujvala Rajadhyaksha (Department of Management, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois, USA)

South Asian Journal of Business Studies

ISSN: 2398-628X

Article publication date: 21 July 2020

Issue publication date: 13 November 2020




This study asks the following research question: does “city” context interact with gender and gender egalitarianism (GE) to impact the positive (WFPOS – work–family positive spillover) and negative (WFC - work-family conflict) aspects of the work–family (WF) interface of working men and women in India.


MANCOVA analysis is used to examine data gathered from 250+ working men and women from eight different Indian cities that were ranked based on the 2018 Ease of Living (EOL) Index.


There was no significant main effect of gender on WF interface variables. Low levels of GE and low EOL were significantly associated with high levels of WFC and WFPOS. There was a significant interaction between gender, GE and city. An examination of within-gender differences indicated that in low-EOL cities, men and women with low values of GE (traditionals) had significantly higher time-based WFC than men and women with high values of GE (egalitarians). Additionally, traditional women reported higher WFPOS than egalitarian women. In high-EOL cities, traditional men reported significantly higher time-based WFC than egalitarian men. There were no significant differences between women.

Research limitations/implications

Gender, along with gender-related attitudinal and contextual variables, does a better job of explaining variance in the WF interface as compared to gender alone. Results support the notion that high WFPOS and high WFC can co-occur in contexts of change and transition such as rapidly growing urban centers.

Practical implications

The results have significance for work–family practitioners as well as urban city planners looking to improve the quality of work–life in India and other similar emerging market economies experiencing rapid urbanization.


The study extends work–family research by bringing aspects of urban planning and gender studies into an understanding of the work–family interface.



The author would like to acknowledge all anonymous reviewers who provided helpful comments on a previous version of the paper.Funding: Data collection for this study was funded by the Faculty Mini-grant of the College of Business and the University Research Grant of Governors State University.


Rajadhyaksha, U. (2020), "Does it matter where you live? Examining the impact of gender, gender egalitarianism and city context on the work–family interface", South Asian Journal of Business Studies, Vol. 9 No. 3, pp. 391-410.



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