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The impact of macroeconomic variables on the budget deficit in Bangladesh: an econometric analysis

Md. Mahbub Alam (Department of Economics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh)
Md. Nazmus Sadekin (Department of Economics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh)
Sanjoy Kumar Saha (Department of Economics, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh) (Department of Economics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea)

South Asian Journal of Business Studies

ISSN: 2398-628X

Article publication date: 25 December 2020

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of selected macro-economic variables like real effective exchange rate (REER), GDP, inflation (INF), the volume of trade (TR) and money supply (M2) on-budget deficit (BD) in Bangladesh over the period of 1980–2018.

Design/methodology/approach

By using secondary data, the paper uses the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Granger Causality test. Johansen’s cointegration test is used to examine the long-run relationship among the variables under study.

Findings

Johansen’s cointegration test result shows that there exists a positive long-run relationship of selected macroeconomic variables (real effective exchange rate, inflation, the volume of trade and money supply) with the budget deficit, whereas GDP has a negative one. The short-run results from the VECM show that GDP, inflation and money supply have a negative relationship with the budget deficit. The Granger Causality test results reveal unidirectional causal relationships running from BD to REER; TR to BD; M2 to BD; GDP to REER; M2 to REER; INF to GDP; GDP to TR; M2 to GDP and bidirectional causal relationship between GDP and BD; TR and REER; M2 and TR.

Originality/value

Bangladesh has been experiencing a budget deficit since 1972 due to a decline in sources of revenue. This study contributes to the empirical debate on the causal nexus between macroeconomic variables and budget deficits by employing VECM and Granger Causality approaches.

Keywords

Acknowledgements

This research received no financial support from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Citation

Alam, M.M., Sadekin, M.N. and Saha, S.K. (2020), "The impact of macroeconomic variables on the budget deficit in Bangladesh: an econometric analysis", South Asian Journal of Business Studies, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/SAJBS-05-2020-0141

Publisher

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Emerald Publishing Limited

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