International relations and security studies suffer from an inadequate understanding of established theories in organizational leadership and management studies. This chapter contributes to these disciplines by drawing upon such models to analyze the changes in political leadership approaches of China and the United States in their interactions over maritime territorial disputes in the South China Sea (SCS). Using the transactional–transformational and directive–participative leadership paradigms as its foundation, the analysis argues (1) that contextual factors unique to the each country shape its political leadership styles and (2) the leadership styles within each case study have changed dramatically over the past decades in terms of their rhetoric and policies for managing the SCS disputes. Empirical evidence is based on the policies, leaders’ statements, and official documents of China, a claimant to SCS maritime territory, and the United States, an influential stakeholder in the disputes. In the two case studies, the chapter discusses the implications of the changing leadership styles for the understanding of political interaction in the region and the future of the SCS disputes.
Spangler, J. (2015), "The Evolution of Leadership Styles in the South China Sea: Contextual Factors and Shifting Approaches in China and the United States", Asian Leadership in Policy and Governance (Public Policy and Governance, Vol. 24), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 159-185. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2053-769720150000024007Download as .RIS
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