Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods

ISBN: 978-1-78769-010-3, eISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

ISSN: 2044-9941

Publication date: 16 November 2020


(2020), "Prelims", Oviedo, D., Duarte, N.V. and Pinto, A.M.A. (Ed.) Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods (Transport and Sustainability, Vol. 12), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. i-xxiii.



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Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America

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Editorial Advisory Board

Lucy Budd, De Montfort University, UK

Michela Le Pira, University of Catania, Italy

Becky Loo, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Corinne Mulley, University of Sydney, Australia

John Nelson, University of Sydney, Australia

Joachim Scheiner, Technical University of Dortmund, Germany

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Transport and Sustainability

Series Editors Stephen Ison, John Shaw and Maria Attard

Recent Volumes:

Volume 1: Cycling and Sustainability
Volume 2: Transport and Climate Change
Volume 3: Sustainable Transport for Chinese Cities
Volume 4: Sustainable Aviation Futures
Volume 5: Parking: Issues and Policies
Volume 6: Sustainable Logistics
Volume 7: Sustainable Urban Transport
Volume 8: Paratransit: Shaping the Flexible Transport Future
Volume 9: Walking: Connecting Sustainable Transport with Health
Volume 10: Transport, Travel and Later Life
Volume 11: Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions

Title Page

Transport and Sustainability Volume 12

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods

Dr Daniel Oviedo

University College London, UK

Dr Natalia Villamizar Duarte

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Dr Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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First edition 2021

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ISBN: 978-1-78769-010-3 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78769-011-0 (Epub)

ISSN: 2044-9941 (Series)


List of Figures and Tables ix
List of Contributors xiii
Editor Biographies xv
Contributor Biographies xvii
Karen Lucas
Acknowledgements xxiii
Urban Mobility and Social Equity: An Introduction
Natalia Villamizar Duarte, Daniel Oviedo and Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto
Chapter 1 Should Urban Transport Become a Social Policy? Interrogating the Role of Accessibility in Social Equity and Urban Development in Bogotá, Colombia
Daniel Oviedo and Luis Ángel Guzmán
Chapter 2 Mobility and Gender Equity in Latin America: Different Mobile Burdens and Contributions in Montevideo (Uruguay)
Diego Hernández and Daniela de los Santos
Chapter 3 Children and Urban Mobility: Care Dynamics on Family Mobility Patterns
Gabriela Cicci Faria
Chapter 4 ‘Like Sardines in a Can’. Gender, Stratification and Mobility in the Lives of Female Household Employees in Bogotá, Colombia
Friederike Fleischer and Ivette S. Sepúlveda Sanabria
Chapter 5 Sustainable Transport and Gender Equity: Insights from Santiago, Chile
Lake Sagaris and Ignacio Tiznado-Aitken
Chapter 6 Gendered Exploration of Emotive and Instrumental Well-Being for Cyclist Woman in Latin America
Beatriz Mella Lira
Chapter 7 Active Commute to School, Physical Activity and Health of Hispanic High School Students in the United States
Ivis García and Keuntae Kim
Chapter 8 Children’s Mobility and Playability in the Neighbourhood of Río Piedras: Perspectives from Children and Adults
Norma I. Peña-Rivera and Enery López-Navarrete
Chapter 9 Mobility and Equity: The Problem of Access to City Spaces by Individuals Submitted to Psychiatric Hospitalisation
Luiza Morena Alves Lopes
Chapter 10 Urban Accessibility in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: A Case Study of Mobility Practices and Demands of People with Disabilities in the Mobility Systems
Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto, Marcos Fontoura De Oliveira, Bruna Barradas Cordeiro and Laíse Lorene Hasz Souza e Oliveira
Julio D. Dávila
Index 239

List of Figures and tables


Fig. 1.1. Boundaries and Configuration of Bogotá Region. 18
Fig. 1.2. Income Distribution and Average Motorised Travel Times in Bogotá. 20
Fig. 1.3. Generated and Attracted Non-Mandatory Walking Daily Trips. 22
Fig. 1.4. Potential Accessibility to Employment and Education Opportunities by Transport Mode. 23
Fig. 1.5. Differences in Potential Accessibility to Employment and Education by Transport Mode. 24
Fig. 1.6. Average Generalised Travel Cost for Non-Mandatory Activities by Mode. 25
Fig. 2.1. Conceptual Framework. 37
Fig. 2.2. Immobility (Including Constrained Mobility) by Gender and Other Sociodemographic Indicators (Percentages). 39
Fig. 2.3. Average Travel Time and Distance by Gender. 40
Fig. 2.4. Travel Mode by Gender (Percentages). 41
Fig. 2.5. Access to Mobility Resources by Gender (Percentages). 41
Fig. 2.6. Purpose of the Trip (Excluding Trips to Home) by Gender (Percentages). 42
Fig. 2.7. Trips Related to Domestic/Care Activities, by Mode and Gender (Population Older than 18 Years). 43
Fig. 2.8. Female Contributions to Care and Work-oriented Trips by Transport Mode; Population Older than 18 Years (Percentages). 43
Fig. 2.9. Female Contribution to the Amount of Minutes Allocated to Care-oriented Trips; Population Older than 18 Years (Percentages). 44
Fig. 2.10. Itinerary: Home–Work–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (32% of Men and 26% of Women). 45
Fig. 2.11. Itinerary: Home–Care Activity–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (4% of Men and 8% of Women). 46
Fig. 2.12. Itinerary: Home–Activity 1–Activity 2–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (9% of Men and 13% of Women). 47
Fig. 2.13. Itinerary: Home–Work–Activity–Home; Population between The Ages of 18 and 64 (5% of Men and 8% of Women). 48
Fig. 2.14. Itinerary: Home–Activity 1–Activity 2–Activity 3–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (22% of Men and 23% of Women). 50
Fig. 2.15. Itinerary: Home–Work–Activity 2–Activity 3–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (11% of Men and 9% of Women). 51
Fig. 2.16. Itinerary: Home–Activity 1–Activity 2–Work–Home; Population between the Ages of 18 and 64 (7% of Men and 4% of Women). 52
Fig. 3.1. Route Motivation of Men of Rmbh. 67
Fig. 3.2. Route Motivation of Women of Rmbh. 68
Fig. 3.3. Route Motivations of Men Responsible for the Household. 68
Fig. 3.4. Route Motivations of Women Responsible for The Household. 69
Fig. 3.5. Influence of the Age of Cohabiting Children on the Mobility of the Care of Adults in Charge of Household. 71
Fig. 3.6. Influence of the Educational Level and Age of Cohabiting Children in the Mobility of Care. 73
Fig. 3.7. Modes – General Population. 73
Fig. 3.8. Modes – Household Heads. 74
Fig. 3.9. Influence of Cohabiting Children in Non-motorised Mode. 75
Fig. 3.10. Influence of Cohabiting Children in Collective Mode. 75
Fig. 3.11. Influence of Cohabiting Children in Motorised Individual Mode. 75
Fig. 3.12. Influence of the Level of Education in Transport Mode. 76
Fig. 3.13. Influence of the Age of Cohabiting Children and Level of Education in Non-motorised Use. 77
Fig. 3.14. Influence of the Age of Cohabiting Children and Level of Education in Non-motorised Use. 77
Fig. 3.15. Influence of the Age of Cohabiting Children and Level of Education in Motorised Individual Use. 78
Fig. 4.1. Interlocutors’ Residence-Work Journeys and Modes of Transportation. 91
Fig. 5.1. Three Different Views of ‘Equality’ and ‘Equity’ Illustrate the Wicked Problem Behind Terms Many People Take for Granted. In Transportation, Walking and Walkability are Often Neglected in Both Planning and Research, Despite Their Crucial Interactions with Gender, Equity, Health, Road Safety and Urban Security Issues. 107
Fig. 5.2. Spatial Distribution and Population of the Comunas, with the Poorest Spread Through Most of the City, with the Jurisdictions in the Centre (San = Santiago Centre; Pro = Providencia) Having More Mixed Incomes, and Four Towards the City’s Eastern Edge (LB = Lo Barnechea, VI = Vitacura, Lco = Las Condes and LR = LaReina) Posting Very High Incomes. 110
Fig. 5.3. Distribution of Walking Trips in General (Above) and Walking Trips Made Mainly by Women (Below), Revealing the High Dependence on Walking as a Major Transport Mode in Low-Income Comunas. Moreover, Women Account for a Disproportionately High Percentage of Those Trips. 113
Fig. 5.4. Sexual Harassment Reported by Women is Remarkably Consistent Across Modes, Including Walking Trips (Access/Egress) Related to Public Transit. Metro is the Only Part of the Travel Chain Covered by a Security System. 119
Fig. 8.1. Conditions That Create Playability Poverty. 172
Fig. 8.2. Photo Shooting Tour. Capetillo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2016. 178
Fig. 8.3. Children Drawing on Map of Their Community and Final Map. Capetillo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2016. 178
Fig. 8.4. Drawing with Chalks on the Sidewalk and Street, Capetillo, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2016. 179
Fig. 8.5. Río Piedras Neighbourhood and its Eight Sub-Barrios, San Juan, Puerto Rico 2015 [Map]. 1:7,500. 179
Fig. 8.6. Map of Capetillo Sub-Barrio and Critical Sites for Play in Capetillo from the Perspective of Children. San Juan, Puerto Rico, 2015. 180
Fig. 8.7. Children Forming Barriers for Traffic Calming on the North and South Sides Corners of the Street. Capetillo, San Juan, Puerto Rico 2016. 182
Fig. 9.1. Mobility at the Transitory Hospital. 198
Fig. 10.1. Percentage Distribution of Persons With and Without Disabilities by Age in the City of Belo Horizonte. 220
Fig. 10.2. Percentage Distribution of Per Capita Income in Minimum Wages of People with Disabilities. 221
Fig. 10.3. Number of Trips per Day per Person in Belo Horizonte According to the Disability Type. 222
Fig. 10.4. Percentage Distribution of Modes of Transport of People with Disabilities in Belo Horizonte. 223
Fig. 10.5. Percentage Distribution of the Demands of the Participants of the Focus Group Regarding the Mobility for People with Disabilities in Belo Horizonte, by Thematic Axes. 225


Table 1.1. Percentage of All Trips by Trip Purpose and Modal Share 2011. 21
Table 3.1. Percentage of Persons Responsible for Children in the Immobility Sample. 66
Table 3.2. Influence of the Age of Cohabiting Children on the Motivations of Adult Caregivers. 70
Table 3.3. Motivation of Trips by Level of Education. 72
Table 3.4. Ratio of Trips Per Journey. 78
Table 5.1. Modal Share in Santiago: Soaring Automobility in Recent Decades. 110
Table 5.2. Public Investment* in Transportation in Recent Years, Millions USD. 111
Table 5.3. Poverty in Santiago Comunas (Ranked by No. of Persons and Percentage of Population). 112
Table 5.4. Overall Sustainability (%). 114
Table 5.5. Where Do Women Travel Most, by Each Mode? 115
Table 5.6. Gender, Age and Trip Purpose (%). 117
Table 5.7. Trip Purpose Ranked Using ‘Care’ Criteria (Women are Majority Realising These Trips). 118
Table A1. Gender and Transport in Santiago: An Overview. 128
Table 7.1. Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity Behaviours in NypanS Survey Data Sample (n = 7,398). 158
Table 7.2. Complex Survey Data Quasi-Poisson Regression Results: Race/Ethnicity Effects. 160
Table 9.1. Methodological Strategies to Data Collection and Analysis. 196
Table 9.2. Transportation Use Difficulties. 200
Table 9.3. Resident’s Profile. 201
Table 9.4. Residential Therapeutics Service Mobility Profile. 202
Table 10.1. Percentage Distribution of Reasons for Travelling in Belo Horizonte According to the Disability Type. 222

List of Contributors

Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil

Bruna Barradas Cordeiro, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil

Julio D. Dávila, University College London, UK

Daniela de los Santos, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

Gabriela Cicci Faria, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil

Friederike Fleischer, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia

Marcos Fontoura de Oliveira, Transport and Transit Company of Belo Horizonte, BH-TRANS., Brazil

Ivis García, University of Utah, USA

Luis Ángel Guzmán, Universidad de Los Andes, Colombia

Laíse Lorene Hasz Souza e Oliveira, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil

Diego Hernández, Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay

Keuntae Kim, University of Utah, USA

Luiza Morena Alves Lopes, Federal University of Minas Gerais, UFMG, Brazil

Enery López-Navarrete, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

Karen Lucas, University of Manchester, UK

Beatriz Mella Lira, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Daniel Oviedo, University College London, UK

Norma I. Peña-Rivera, University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

Lake Sagaris, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Ivette S. Sepúlveda Sanabria, Fundación Universitaria San Alfonso, Colombia

Ignacio Tiznado-Aitken, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Natalia Villamizar Duarte, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia

Editor Biographies

Daniel Oviedo is an Assistant Professor at the Development Planning Unit of University College London. He is a Civil Engineer and Urban Development Planner with over 10 years of experience in urban transport in Global South cities. His research focusses on accessibility, inequality, social exclusion, informal transport and sustainability. He leads INTALInC in Latin America.

Natalia Villamizar Duarte is an Associate Professor in the School of Architecture and Urbanism at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia. She has worked in urban design, urban planning and policymaking for over 15 years. Her work focusses on processes and practices of governing, public space and urban mobility, planning of urban borders and community–university partnerships.

Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto is an Associate Professor of Sociology at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. She is a sociologist with over 20 years of experience in urban sociology, urban planning and mobility. Her work focusses on public space, sociability and urban mobility policy in Bogotá, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte.

Contributor Biographies

Bruna Barradas Cordeiro holds a Master’s in Sociology from Participatory Planning Geographical Information System (PPGIS)/Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG in the research field of Urban Sociology, and a Bachelor’s in Social Sciences from the same university. Currently, she is a Researcher at the Center of Urban Studies at UFMG, working with urban mobility, hawkers and informal economy in mobility spaces.

Julio D. Dávila is a Professor of Urban Policy and International Development, and a Director of the Development Planning Unit, University College London. He is a civil engineer and urban development planner with 30 years’ international experience in research and consultancy. His research focusses on local government and social and political transformations, and governance of urban infrastructure.

Daniela de los Santos is a Sociologist. She is a Researcher at the Interdisciplinary Centre for Development Studies-Uruguay (CIEDUR), Universidad Católica del Uruguay, Uruguay and a Research Assistant at the Catholic University of Uruguay. Her fields of interest are gender and economic inequalities, public policy, social science methodology and urban studies.

Gabriela Cicci Faria holds a Master’s in Urban Sociology from the Federal University of Minas Gerais and is a Social Psychologist graduated from the same institution. Her main themes of interest in research are urban mobility, gender, space and subjectivity.

Friederike Fleischer is an Associate Professor at the Department of Anthropology, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia. Her books include Suburban Beijing (2010) and Soup, Love, and a Helping Hand (2018). She recently published ‘Atravesando la Ciudad ….’ (EURE, 2019) and ‘The Normalization of Bogota Social Housing Residents …’ (City & Society, forthcoming).

Marcos Fontoura De Oliveira is a Civil Engineer and an Urbanist in the Federal University of Minas Gerais. He has a Master’s in Public Administration from the João Pinheiro Foundation and a Doctorate in Social Sciences from PUC-Minas. He is an advisor to the Presidency of the Empresa de Transportes e Trânsito de Belo Horizonte, BH-TRANS.

Dr Ivis García is originally from Puerto Rico. She is an Assistant Professor of City and Metropolitan Planning at the University of Utah. She is a National Institute for Transportation and Communities Researcher. Her work has been published in Urban Studies, Journal of the American Planning Association, Journal of Planning Education and Research, among other urban planning journals.

Luis Ángel Guzmán is an Associate Professor at the School of Engineering at Universidad de los Andes. His research interests include urban mobility, transport and land-use interaction and social and economic analysis of inequalities related to urban transport and policy evaluation.

Laíse Lorene Hasz Souza e Oliveira holds Master’s in Sociology from PPGS/Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in the research field of Urban Sociology and Bachelor’s in Social Sciences from the same university. Presently, she is a Researcher at the Center of Urban Studies at UFMG, working with urban mobility and waiting spaces.

Diego Hernández is an Associate Professor, at the Department of Social Sciences, Universidad Católica del Uruguay. He develops research on transport, mobility, social exclusion and equity, including topics like spatial accessibility, affordability and gender. He has published his research work in scientific journals and has worked as a consultant for national and international institutions.

Keuntae Kim is a PhD student at the Department of City and Metropolitan Planning and holds a Master’s degree in City Planning from Seoul National University, and another Master’s degree in Urban Design from School of City and Regional Planning at the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Luiza Morena Alves Lopes completed her graduation in Occupational Therapy (2012) and MSc in Sociology (2018) at the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Since 2012, she works as Occupational Therapist at the Universal Health System with mentally suffering individuals, including participating in the closing process of the last Psychiatric Hospital of Belo Horizonte.

Enery López-Navarrete is an Early Childhood Specialist with studies in Urban Planning from Graduate School of Planning, UPR. Her work focusses on weaving children’s play into communities. Her favourite places to do research include sidewalks, streets and unused spaces to visibilize children in open public spaces.

Karen Lucas is a Professor of Transport and Social Analysis at the Institute of Transport Studies, University of Leeds and a Deputy Director of the Leeds Social Sciences Institute. She has 20 years of experience in social research in transport. She is a world-leading expert in the area of transport-related social exclusion. She is also the Director of INTALInC.

Beatriz Mella Lira is Postdoctoral Researcher at the BRT+ Centre of Excellence, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, and a former PhD Researcher at the Bartlett School of Planning, University College London. She has recently co-edited the book A Companion to Transport, Space and Equity (Edward Elgar Publishing).

Norma I. Peña-Rivera, PhD, is a Professor and a Director of the Graduate School of Planning at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras. Her research areas include transportation and land-use planning, spatial decision support systems and social exclusion by mobility.

Lake Sagaris is an Associate Professor in the Department of Transport Engineering and Logistics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centre for Sustainable Urban Development CEDEUS, BRT+ Centre of Excellence. She holds a PhD in Planning and Geography. She specialises in collaborative governance, transport justice and walk–bike–bus sustainability trio from a gender and equity perspective.

Ivette S. Sepúlveda Sanabria is a Professor of Social Work at Fundación Universitaria San Alfonso, Colombia. Her research is about care policies and the care economy. Her publications include ‘Políticas sobre el cuidado en Bogotá…’ (Trabajo Social, 2017) and Se nos va el cuidado, se nos va la vida… (2018).

Ignacio Tiznado-Aitken is Postdoctoral Researcher at the Centre for Sustainable Urban Development, CEDEUS, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. He holds a PhD in Transport Engineering from Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and he was a Visiting Postgraduate Researcher at the Institute for Transport Studies at the University of Leeds. His main research interests are accessibility, affordability, equity, poverty and transport justice.


Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin American Cities: Evidence, Concepts and Methods for More Inclusive Cities

Karen Lucas

I have been researching and writing about transport inequities and their punitive social consequences for the affected individuals and communities for more than 20 years now and in numerous geographical contexts. I am pleased to say that over this time more and more academics from around the world are becoming interested in researching this topic, as well as trying to influence policymakers, planners and the funders of transport projects to think more about social equity in the design and operation of urban transport systems. It is an important issue in all geographical contexts, whether in the Global North or South, in urban, suburban or rural contexts, and everywhere in between, for all forms of transport, as well as for urban planning and for how we shape our cities and their rural hinterlands.

Inequality in all its dangerous and pernicious forms infuriates me, especially when the people who experience it have no control over the power structures that create it and no opportunities to fight against it. The mobility and accessibility inequalities caused by exclusionary transport and land-use systems are particularly insidious because almost all countries have overlooked them within their social development and welfare agendas. However, lack of access to transport resources can have hugely negative social outcomes over a person’s life course, denying them participation in many activities and opportunities, and can even destroy the well-being of whole communities. In the main, these inequalities are not something that individuals can themselves resolve, although they may invent highly creative strategies to cope with them on a daily basis. Nevertheless, a fundamental overhaul of the power structures that plan and finance urban transport systems as well as dedicated evidence-based policies, integrated planning and sustained project interventions are needed to change the current trajectory, so that cities can become inclusive places for all.

Latin America is a vast subcontinent and so we are often talking about very different physical conditions, political economies and human capabilities across the different countries under consideration, as well between the urban conurbations within them. What all its countries demonstrate, in common with the rest of the world, is that mobility resources are almost always distributed unevenly (and often unfairly) and in line with traditional social divisions, so that usually lower income groups get to have much less of them, as do women, children, older people, people with disabilities and other socially disadvantaged groups. It is unsurprising that they undertake most of their trips by walking or walk long distances to access the limited transit services that are available to them. This in turn reduces their opportunities to access employment and other key activities within the rapidly expanding urban realm.

These problems can be particularly acute for low-income women, who not only have to travel to far-flung places outside their areas of residence to take up domiciliary employment in the middle-class areas of the city, but must also combine this travel with the still highly gendered responsibilities of caring for children and elderly relatives and managing the home. The high demands placed on low-income women to travel away from the home to secure a living in the far-flung and often gated communities of the middle-class households in many Latin American cities can also have severe knock-on consequences for their children and family relationships. As such, as the case studies identify, mobility poverty is a social problem from the point of view of social participation and inclusion, and one that needs full integration with other welfare policies, such as housing, employment, healthcare and education provision, in order to address a much broad set of Sustainable Development Goals for Latin American cities.

It is for this reason that the texts that Oviedo, Villamizar and Ardila have brought together in this edited collection are so important. They provide the underpinning theories, concepts and evidence base that has been missing for so long within the discourses surrounding the provision of sustainable and equitable mobility in developing cities. Not only do these Latin American case studies serve to highlight the negative consequences of having inadequate mobility resources for people’s lives and livelihoods, but they also demonstrate how person-centric designed and context-specific projects can successfully provide inclusive accessibility for all within cities. That the authors are themselves from Latin American origins also lends a certain sense of passion and integrity to the work. That many of them are early career researchers offers the old hands, like myself, hope for the continuance of teaching, research and policy action addressing the intersectionalities between mobility inequalities and social well-being.

It is, thus, my hope that this book will receive the attention it deserves from the people who can make a real difference on the ground in these domains, and so, to recognise the important role of urban mobility in the achievement of greater social equity at every level of Latin American society.

Professor Karen Lucas

School of Environment, Education and Development

University of Manchester


The culmination of this publication is the result of a collective effort of a wide network of academics, citizens and professionals concerned with understanding the links between urban mobility and social equity. Such network is the result of the collaboration of researchers, universities and research centres, development agencies, public and private institutions, non-governmental organisations and citizens of countries across Latin America and beyond. By committing research, financial, logistical support, translation, editorial and affective support, each one of these individuals and organisations has made this book possible. We express our sincere thanks to each and all of them.

We also want to thank researchers, friends and colleagues of the Latin American Branch of the International Network for Transport and Accessibility in Low Income Communities, INTALInC LAC. This network has offered us, the editors and contributors, a space for voicing debates and exploring the implications for transport planning and urban mobility and their interaction with other dimensions of planning. We thank the members of the network who actively engaged in the production of this book. We also express our gratitude to the editorial and logistic team at Emerald for their undying support in editing and publishing the final product, with a great interest in contributing to the production of knowledge in Latin America. Finally, to our readers, thank you for the opportunity to share our research with you and for continuing expanding the interest in social research in urban mobility in Latin America and the Global South.