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Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Penetrations in Multi-porosity Soil

Water Management and Sustainability in Asia

ISBN: 978-1-80071-115-0, eISBN: 978-1-80071-114-3

Publication date: 12 July 2021


The impact of climate change towards water surface resources is crucial, particularly in developing and non-developing countries. Groundwater as a main water resource is thus an essential. However, contamination due to hydrocarbon spills affects the groundwater as a water resource, especially as a main source of drinking water. This chapter investigates the light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) penetrations in double-porosity soil with different moisture contents and with or without vibration impact. It also explains the LNAPL penetration phenomena by employing image analysis. The physical laboratory experiments were implemented using an acrylic cylinder, a mirror, toluene and a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. Prepared soil was poured in an acrylic cylinder and compressed with compressor until it became 10 cm in height. LNAPL was then poured instantaneously onto the acrylic cylinder that was filled with soil sample. The LNAPL penetration patterns were recorded and monitored using a Nikon D90 DSLR digital camera. The processing technique was conducted at predetermined time intervals using Surfer software and Matlab routine to plot the LNAPL pattern. The results showed that a higher penetration rate of LNAPL occurred with higher moisture content and without vibration impact. The penetration time for LNAPL to reach the bottom of the soil sample was found to be longer for the soil that had low moisture content and with vibration impact.




This study was supported by the Research Management Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, under the Research University Grant, GUP Tier 1, vote number Q.J130000.2522.20H53 and Fundamental Research Grant from Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia vote number R.J130000.7822.4F894. The authors would like to thank their respective universities, Geotechnical Laboratory, Hydraulic Laboratory and Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Group, School of Civil, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia for the cooperation given for this research. Highest appreciation is also expressed towards the Kings’ Scholarship and UTMLead for supporting this research study and all whom were involved either directly or indirectly.


Rashid, M.F.A., Alias, N., Ahmad, K., Sa’ari, R., Tsai, F.T.-C., Ramli, M.Z. and Ibrahim, Z. (2021), "Light Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Penetrations in Multi-porosity Soil", Alias, N.E., Haniffah, M.R.M. and Harun, S. (Ed.) Water Management and Sustainability in Asia (Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Vol. 23), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 161-171.



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