Over years, the concept of dealing with urban risk has changed. While in 1970s urbanization was equal to industrialization and physical infrastructure development, 1980s focused on sustainable development and urban growth. In 1990s, new concept of eco-city and resilient cities came into practice, and in 2000, urban ecosystem concept became more popular. There are possibly two or three key issues that can be incurred from this evolution process: first, urban issues are becoming complex and urban boundaries extending beyond the traditional city or administrative boundaries. For resources (natural, food, human, energy, water), cities need to depend more on rural areas. Urban–rural linkage issues are getting increasing importance. Second, while dealing with the urban problems, traditional physical and economic approaches have limitations in solving this issue; rather, more ecosystem-based approach or the environment disaster interface needs to be focused. Third, due to climatic changes, urban areas are increasingly becoming more fragile, and the deep impacts are on the poor and vulnerable communities living in the informal settlements.
Shaw, R. and Sharma, A. (2011), "Chapter 14 Beyond Resilience Mapping", Shaw, R. and Sharma, A. (Ed.) Climate and Disaster Resilience in Cities (Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Vol. 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 281-287. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-7262(2011)0000006020Download as .RIS
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