Since independence, Malaysia has generally registered continuous economic growth and this development has brought about numerous benefits including improved social amenities and a trend toward greater urbanization of the population. Economic development in Malaysia has contributed to environmental degradation and uncontrolled physical development, especially in the urban areas. Protection of the environment has become a necessity rather than a luxury in order to maintain public health and well-being as well as to sustain the economic growth. As in most developing countries, there are many challenges facing the country, especially so in urban areas, where the human, physicochemical and biological environments are interlinked (Pereira & Komoo, 2004). One major challenge is the increasing occurrence of geological and flood-related disasters, causing property damage and high cost of maintenance as well as loss of lives, in extreme cases. In part, this is a manifestation of poor planning, and many of the problems related to hazards in urban areas are often exacerbated by human activities.
Jacqueline Pereira, J., Ching Tiong, T. and Komoo, I. (2010), "Chapter 8 Mainstreaming climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction: A Malaysian approach", Shaw, R., Pulhin, J.M. and Jacqueline Pereira, J. (Ed.) Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction: An Asian Perspective (Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, Vol. 5), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 147-167. https://doi.org/10.1108/S2040-7262(2010)0000005014
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