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Diversity Management and Inclusion in Afghanistan

Diversity within Diversity Management

ISBN: 978-1-78754-821-3, eISBN: 978-1-78754-820-6

Publication date: 10 April 2019



The purpose of this chapter is to create awareness and provide practical solution for the diversity conflicts and challenges facing people in Afghanistan.


The content comes from the literature and personal observations of living in Afghanistan, while also meeting several ministers and the former president of the country.


While most people around the globe might perceive Afghanistan as a homogeneous society made up of people with similar beliefs and goal, the reality is far from it due to the heterogeneity of ethnicities, values, and languages spoken in the country. Of course, heterogeneity can make a society much more complex when diversity is not managed effectively, and this is certainly the case in Afghanistan’s divided population. When a heterogeneous society is not inclusive and not managed well, its consequences can be high levels of discrimination, distrust, violence, and animosity among diverse people groups. Afghanistan is an Asian collective culture, which has suffered from many negative consequences caused by mismanagement of diversity, low levels of education, and political acrimony among different people groups based on tribalism.

Research Limitations

There was no funding to conduct primary research. As such, the literature and conclusions are based on personal experiences of the author, interviews with the current and former political leaders, and previously published materials.

Practical Implications

This chapter suggests that inclusion, education and diversity management are especially crucial for Afghanistan. A review of the Afghan cultural diversity is provided along with suggestions for creating a more inclusive country for all citizens.


The chapter is an original writing based on the author’s socialization, education and interaction with the Afghan culture. As an expert trainer and researcher, the author provides practical content for education, application, and policy development in Afghanistan.



Mujtaba, B.G. (2019), "Diversity Management and Inclusion in Afghanistan", Diversity within Diversity Management (Advanced Series in Management, Vol. 21), Emerald Publishing Limited, Leeds, pp. 373-389.



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