Prelims

Emotions and Identity

ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5, eISBN: 978-1-78714-437-8

ISSN: 1746-9791

Publication date: 13 July 2017

Citation

(2017), "Prelims", Emotions and Identity (Research on Emotion in Organizations, Vol. 13), Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. i-xxii. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1746-979120170000013018

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Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited


Half Title Page

EMOTIONS AND IDENTITY

Series Page

RESEARCH ON EMOTION IN ORGANIZATIONS

Series Editors: Neal M. Ashkanasy, Wilfred J. Zerbe and Charmine E. J. Härtel

Recent Volumes:

Volume 4: Emotions, Ethics and Decision-Making – Edited by Wilfred J. Zerbe, Charmine E. J. Härtel and Neal M. Ashkanasy
Volume 5: Emotions in Groups, Organizations and Cultures – Edited by Charmine E. J. Härtel, Neal M. Ashkanasy and Wilfred J. Zerbe
Volume 6: Emotions and Organizational Dynamism – Edited by Wilfred J. Zerbe, Charmine E. J. Härtel and Neal M. Ashkanasy
Volume 7: What Have We Learned? Ten Years On – Edited by Charmine E. J. Härtel, Neal M. Ashkanasy and Wilfred J. Zerbe
Volume 8: Experiencing and Managing Emotions in the Workplace – Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy, Charmine E. J. Härtel and Wilfred J. Zerbe
Volume 9: Individual Sources, Dynamics, and Expressions of Emotion – Edited by Wilfred J. Zerbe, Neal M. Ashkanasy and Charmine E. J. Härtel
Volume 10: Emotions and the Organizational Fabric – Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy, Wilfred J. Zerbe and Charmine E. J. Härtel
Volume 11: New Ways of Studying Emotions in Organizations – Edited by Charmine E. J. Härtel, Wilfred J. Zerbe and Neal M. Ashkanasy
Volume 12: Emotions and Organizational Governance – Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy, Charmine E. J. Härtel and Wilfred J. Zerbe

Title Page

RESEARCH ON EMOTION IN ORGANIZATIONS VOLUME 13

EMOTIONS AND IDENTITY

EDITED BY

WILFRED J. ZERBE

Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. Johns, Canada

CHARMINE E. J. HÄRTEL

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

NEAL M. ASHKANASY

University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

LAURA PETITTA

University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy

United Kingdom – North America – Japan – India – Malaysia – China

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ISBN: 978-1-78714-438-5 (Print)

ISBN: 978-1-78714-437-8 (Online)

ISBN: 978-1-78714-931-1 (Epub)

ISSN: 1746-9791 (Series)

List of Contributors

Neal M. Ashkanasy UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Oluremi B. Ayoko UQ Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Maria Bakatsaki School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, University Campus, Chania, Crete, Greece
Sara Bonesso Department of Management, Ca’ Foscari Competency Centre, Ca’ Foscary University of Venice, San Giobbe, Cannaregio, Venice, Italy
Anna Comacchio Department of Management, Ca’ Foscari Competency Centre, Ca’ Foscary University of Venice, San Giobbe, Cannaregio, Venice, Italy
Laura Cortellazzo Department of Management, Ca’ Foscari Competency Centre, Ca’ Foscary University of Venice, San Giobbe, Cannaregio, Venice, Italy
Elaine F. Fernandez Department of Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, HELP University, Selangor, Malaysia
Fabrizio Gerli Department of Management, Ca’ Foscari Competency Centre, Ca’ Foscary University of Venice, San Giobbe, Cannaregio, Venice, Italy
Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen Department of Marketing and International Business, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Charmine E. J. Härtel UQ Business School St Lucia, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Melanie Hassett Department of Marketing, International Enterprise and Strategy, Sheffield University Management School, Sheffield, UK
Kati Järvi Department of Management and Organization, Hanken School of Economics, Arkadiankatu, Helsinki, Finland
Zhou Jiang Department of Management, Deakin Business School, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia
Peter J. Jordan Centre for Work Organisation and Wellbeing, Griffith Business School, Nathan Campus, Griffith University, Nathan, Australia
Konstantinos Kafetsios Department of Psychology, University of Crete, Gallos Campus, Rethymnon Crete, Greece
Mikko Kohvakka Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies, University of Eastern Finland, Tulliportinkatu, Joensuu, Finland
Bettina Lampert Institute of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innrain, Innsbruck, Austria
Richard McBain Henley Business School, University of Reading, Greenlands, Reading, UK
Alberto R. Melgoza Finance, Strategy and Development Business Academy, Saudi Aramco, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Vassilis S. Moustakis School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, University Campus, Chania, Crete, Greece
Niina Nummela Department of Marketing and International Business, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Ann Parkinson Henley Business School, University of Reading, Greenlands, Reading, UK
Neil Paulsen University of Queensland Business School, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
Laura Petitta Work and Organizational Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy
Johanna Raitis Department of Marketing and International Business, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
TamilSelvan Ramis Department of Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, HELP University, Selangor, Malaysia
Vishal Rana Department of Employment Relations and Human Resources, Griffith Business School, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Southport, Australia
Sunita Ramam Rupavataram Symbiosis Institute of International Business, Symbiosis International University, Hinjewadi, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Leighann Spencer University of Liverpool Management School, Liverpool, UK
Eugene Y. J. Tee Department of Psychology, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, HELP University, Selangor, Malaysia
Herman H. M. Tse Department of Management, Monash Business School, Monash University, Caulfield East, Victoria, Australia
Christine Unterrainer Institute of Psychology, University of Innsbruck, Innrain, Innsbruck, Austria
Leonidas A. Zampetakis School of Production Engineering and Management, Technical University of Crete, University Campus, Chania, Crete, Greece
Wilfred J. Zerbe Faculty of Business Administration, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada

About the Editors

Neal M. Ashkanasy is a Professor of Management at the UQ Business School at the University of Queensland in Australia. He came to academe in after an 18-year career in water resources engineering. He received his PhD in social/organizational psychology from the same university. His research is in leadership, organizational culture, ethics, and emotions in organizations, and his work has been published in leading journals including the Academy of Management Journal and Review, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, and the Journal of Applied Psychology. He is Associate Editor for Emotion Review and Series Co-Editor of Research on Emotion in Organizations. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Organizational Behavior and Associate Editor for the Academy of Management Review and Academy of Management Learning and Education. Prof. Ashkanasy is a Fellow of the Academy for the Social Sciences in the United Kingdom (AcSS) and Australia (ASSA); the Association for Psychological Science (APS); the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP); Southern Management Association (SMA), and the Queensland Academy of Arts and Sciences (QAAS). In 2017, he was awarded a Medal in the Order of Australia

Charmine E. J. Härtel is Professor of Human Resource Management and Organizational Development in the UQ Business School at The University of Queensland, Australia. Her research and consulting focus on the individual, group and organization-level qualities associated with positive work environments. Her work in the area of emotions includes development of a workgroup emotional climate scale, investigations of emotional experiences within diverse workgroups, and studies of the affective dimension of organizational culture. Charmine has authored over 70 refereed journal articles, which have appeared in journals such as the Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Leadership Quarterly, and Journal of Management.

Laura Petitta is PhD in Work and Organizational Psychology at the Faculty of Medicine and Psychology of the Sapienza University of Rome, and Professor of Training and Organization Development. She has conducted applied research aimed at developing well-being, coaching, psychosocial training, leadership and goal setting systems, with main regard to the role of emotions at work and organizational culture. Since 1995 has conducted organizational consultancy and has contributed to develop several assessment tools aimed at designing Organizational Development interventions. She has published in journals, including Work & Stress, Safety Science, Stress & Health, Accident Analysis and Prevention, European Psychologist, Journal of Business Ethics, Organization Management Journal, and Group Dynamics.

Wilfred J. Zerbe is Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Dean of the Faculty of Business Administration at Memorial University of Newfoundland. His research interests focus on emotions in organizations, organizational research methods, service sector management, business ethics, and leadership. His publications have appeared in books and journals, including The Academy of Management Review, Industrial and Labour Relations Review, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, Journal of Business Research, Journal of Psychology, Journal of Services Marketing, and Journal of Research in Higher Education.

Introduction: Emotions and Identity

The theme we have chosen for this volume, “Emotions and Identity,” addresses the role of emotions in defining who people are, and understand themselves to be, within organizations. Although definitions vary, organizational identity can be considered as a construct that “defines who one is in relation to [their work] role or position within a network of relationships” (Shaffer, Joplin, Bell, Lau, & Oguz, 2000, p. 442). Given that emotions influence perceptions and behaviors (and subsequently the very interactions that define the importance of identity), the chapters in this volume demonstrate the importance of emotion in forming and sustaining both individual and collective identities at work.

Identities, like emotions, are constantly evolving and shifting in relation to the complex interplay between individuals and their environments. Internally, entities negotiate their identities in relation to the dual influence of emotions and cognition. Socially, entities renegotiate their identities in relation to others and shared understandings of social roles and norms. On a broader level, institutions also affect identity by prescribing sets of preferred behavior and internalizing the organization’s behavior through factors such as organizational culture. Ashkanasy (2003) notes further that emotions play an important role within all levels of organizations and can shape, interact with, and be affected by, the identities that emerge throughout organizations.

Scholars have long understood attitudes to be evaluative cognitions about elements in an individual’s environment (Breckler, 1984). As such, attitudes are our assessment of the value (on some evaluative dimension) of the current state of those elements (of their degree of goodness, for example). Attitudes are how we feel about objects or people outside of ourselves. Frijda (1986) notes that emotion is in fact what happens when individuals evaluate themselves when they assess their own goodness or rightness. Thus, emotions of happiness or sadness or anger or calm or embarrassment and so on arise when we evaluate ourselves against our expectations. Arguably, the most important expectation we hold is that of our self-identity (Tyler, Kramer, & John, 2014); thus the importance to and centrality of identity in understanding the dynamics of emotions in organizations.

Recognizing the multi-level implications of both emotions and identities, the authors of the chapters in this volume address emotions and identity on individual, group, occupational, and social role levels. Specifically, they investigate micro-level topics such as how individuals respond to injustice to identify as a collective, in addition to how broader occupational and gender identities influence emotions. In doing so, we organize this volume into four sections: Section 1: Identity, Anger, Diversity; Section 2: Public Sector Settings; Section 3: Gender, Emotions and Identity; and Section 4: Emotions and Identification with Work.

The 2016 Emonet Conference

The chapters in this volume are drawn primarily from the 2016 International Conference on Emotions and Organizational Life (EMONET X), which took place in Rome, Italy, supplemented by additional invited contributions to complement and to complete the theme of this volume. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of conference paper reviewers in this process (see Appendix).

Chapters

Section 1: Identity, Anger, Diversity

In the opening chapter, authors Johanna Raitis, Riikka Harikkala-Laihinen, Melanie Hassett, and Niina Nummela outline a case study of an organization undergoing major change following a Finnish acquisition of a British firm. Drawing upon in-depth interviews with 32 employees of the British firm, Raitis and her colleagues focuse on identifying positivity in the change process. They found that positivity was indeed present; and identified how individuals in this firm were able to construct positive identities in the context of their changing environment. These positive identities in turn enabled employees to establish a sense of belongingness that helped them to adjust to their new employer. The results challenge the usual notion that employees find their participation in acquisition-led change to be stressful and negative. Instead, through adopting a positive identity with the acquiring organizations, the employees interviewed for this study were able to adapt to the (sometimes challenging) demands of the merger.

In the next chapter, Eugene Y. J. Tee, TamilSelvan Ramis, Elaine F. Fernandez, and Neil Paulsen present the results of a survey of 112 Malaysian citizens who were asked to respond to a widely publicized incident involving embezzlement on a massive scale from the government-owned development fund (IMDB) by their Prime Minister, Najib Razak. The authors set out to test a model, founded in social identity theory, which they refer to as the SIMCA (Social Identity Model of Collective Action). The model holds that intentions to engage in collective action stem from feelings of anger in response to perceived injustice. The hypothesized effects are, in turn, hypothesized to be moderated by followers’ group identification (strengthens the effect of injustice on anger) and perceptions of group efficacy (strengthens the effect of anger on intentions to take action). Results supported the hypothesized effects with the exception of the moderating effect of group efficacy, which they found to weaken, rather than to strengthen, the effect of anger on intentions to take action. The authors argue that this may be because followers may have simply assumed there was little need to take action of the group was seen to be efficacious. Overall, however, the findings support the idea that emotions and identification are important precursors of intentions to engage in collective action in response to perceived injustice.

The research outlined in Chapter 3, by Kati Järvi and Mikko Kohvakka, deals with institutional logics in the context of a Finnish University, or more specifically, how the organization’s members cope with a “plurality” of institutional logics. Based on the results of interviews with 47 organizational members across a wide range of functions, the authors reach two main conclusions. The first is that members deal with the circumstances of their employment in different ways, depending on their status, their knowledge and information, and their experiences and interactions with others both within and without the organization. The second is that this process is inherently emotional. The authors illustrate the different logics by presenting six in-depth case studies of organizational members who differ in terms of status and motivation. In particular, each of the six appears motivated by an over-arching emotional reaction to the organization and the circumstances surrounding their position in it.

Section 2: Public Sector Settings

In Chapter 4, Leighann Spencer suggests that the behavioral response to particular anger-triggering events at work can differ depending on whether the situation is “self-relevant,” namely personal anger, or “other-relevant,” namely moral anger. Drawing upon the Dual Threshold Model of anger and using the Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis, the author addresses the following research questions on a sample of nurses. (1) What are the triggering events that lead to the experience of anger? (2) Given the appraisal of the anger-triggering event, when do nurses suppress or express their anger? Findings confirm that nursing identity is tied to relationships with the patients as well as caring and compassion. Consistently, results also indicate that different behavioral anger responses (suppression vs. expression) are diversely triggered by concern for others (i.e., an other-centered and moral form of anger) as opposed to personal concern for conflict and disrespect (i.e., a self-centered form of anger).

Bettina Lampert and Christine Unterrainer explore in Chapter 5 the emotion-generative process of detached concern (i.e., employees’ concern toward and detachment from their clients) that arises during client-interaction in people-oriented work environments. Using a two-stage approach, the authors first examined the two-dimensionality of the detached concern concept across different human service professionals via a cross-sectional survey on a heterogeneous sample of 1,411 employees. Next, they focused on a subsample of 43 physicians and assessed intra- and interpersonal effects of professionals’ detached concern on patient-centered care quality by using a two-source design that included patients’ (N = 332) perceptions of satisfaction with care quality. Findings suggest that different types of detached concern exist, depending on the various combinations of levels of concern and detachment, which apply to all sectors of human service professionals. Further, findings show that balanced employees (scoring high on both concern and detachment) yield lower burnout levels compared to imbalanced professionals. They also found that patients’ perception of care quality is positively related to their physicians’ concern and detachment, and is significantly higher for the balanced than for the imbalanced physicians. Overall, this study calls attention on how identification and engagement with work are part of developing a professional identity; and affect how employees balance their concern and detachment.

Section 3: Gender, Emotions and Identity

In Chapter 6, Sunita Ramam Rupavataram reports findings from an online study of 217 Indian managers aimed at identifying whether self-construal of psychological gender (i.e., sex roles) influences emotional intelligence (EI) more than biological gender. She measured sex-role perceptions using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and measured emotional intelligence using the EIA, which assesses the four main dimensions of Goleman’s model of EI (i.e., self-awareness, social awareness, self-management, and relationship management). The results revealed no difference in EI scores for binary biological gender categorization but significant differences based on sex-role perspective, with scores on the feminine and masculine scale of the BSRI accounting for 35.6% of the variance in EI scores. Interestingly, masculine sex-role participants scored significantly higher on EI than feminine sex-role participants. This contradicts the traditional belief that EI is a feminine intelligence. An alternative explanation for the finding could be that respondents with feminine sex-role orientation are constrained by the interdependence aspects of their sex-role (Markus & Kitayama, 1991), leading them to respond to the need to integrate the self into a group rather than the situational need.

In Chapter 7, authors Leonidas A. Zampetakis, Maria Bakatsaki, Konstantinos Kafetsios, and Vassilis S. Moustakis outline a model of how gender traits (masculinity and femininity) play a role in subjective entrepreneurial success (SES). SES refers to the individual’s evaluation of their business accomplishment. The authors surveyed a random sample of 572 Greek entrepreneurs, with equal numbers of both genders using the short form of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) (Bem, 1981) for gender role orientation. They assessed anticipated affect from business success using Larsen, Norris, McGraw, Hawkley, and Cacioppo’s (2009) evaluative space grid and evaluated SES using five items from Wach, Stephan, and Gorgievski (2015). Using a Bayesian approach, the authors confirmed that gender traits are both positively related to SES, with femininity having a greater impact. This shows that gender role orientation affects entrepreneurs’ evaluation of their accomplishment above and beyond other motivating variables such as need for achievement (which were control variables in the study). Zampetakis and his colleagues also found that gender traits were both positively related to positive anticipated affect and again the effect of femininity is stronger. This could be because the gender-role expectation placed on males for entrepreneurship is more a part of their core motivation compared to females. Entrepreneurship may simply be a role for males; but for females, it represents a choice so they anticipate more positive emotions from their business success. Finally, the authors report finding that positive anticipated affect is positively related to SES, and partially mediates the relationship between gender traits and SES. This sheds light on how gender traits affect SES – it is partly through the cognitive mechanism of entrepreneurs’ affective forecast. Such evidence bolsters our understanding of the increasingly significant relationship between gender traits and entrepreneurship

In Chapter 8, Alberto R. Melgoza, Neal M. Ashkanasy, and Oluremi B. Ayoko tested a model that portrays the moderating influence of gender self-categorizations on individual emotional experiences and prejudicial attitudes. The model also reflects the nature of emotional experiences and how they affect individual prejudicial attitudes and, later, experiences of aggression. In the study, a random sample of 603 employees from a male-dominated global workplace completed an online survey of their individual gender self-categorizations, emotional experiences (using single item measures), prejudicial attitudes (using an implicit association test), and experience of aggressive behavior (Overt-Covert Aggression Scale). The authors found that individuals who self-categorize as either males or females experience different powerful emotions such as anger and contempt. Moreover, they found a positive correlation between anger experienced by employees and female prejudicial attitudes among participants who self-categorized as male, but not for those who self-categorized as female. As for contempt experienced by employees, the authors report finding that this was negatively correlated with prejudicial attitudes toward females, but not mediated by self-categorized gender. They explain the difference in the effect of anger and contempt on female prejudicial attitudes in terms of how anger is an active powerful emotion associated with confrontation, whereas contempt is a passive powerful emotion associated with indifference and exclusion. Melgoza and his associates also found that individuals with prejudiced attitudes toward females are more likely to experience aggressive behavior from females compared to participants with prejudicial attitudes toward males, and vice versa. This is salient because the experience of aggressive behavior triggers turnover and stress (especially in developed economies’ industries).

Section 4: Emotions and Identification with Work

In Chapter 9, Richard McBain and Ann Parkinson conceptually explore workplace friendships in relation to workplace engagement and emotions. Specifically, the authors review the literature on engagement, finding that friendship at work links to emotion and attachment. They also discuss several areas of the literature in depth, such as the formation and various categories of friendship at work. In turn, the authors suggest that workplace friendships and their related emotions can provide an overall context for personal engagement at work. Overall, McBain and Parkinson outline paths for future research, and suggest a stronger focus on qualitative work to understand the complexities of friendships, emotions, and work engagement. In particular, they suggest that traditional quantitative approaches to studying engagement often focus heavily on tasks, whereas a qualitative approach should allow for a more holistic understanding of personal engagement.

Sara Bonesso, Fabrizio Gerli, Anna Comacchio, and Laura Cortellazzo focus in Chapter 10 on the positive impact of emotional, social, and cognitive (ESC) competencies on leadership effectiveness, and address how higher education can favor leadership development at the early stage. By adapting intentional change theory (ICT) to the academic context, the authors collected a two-source assessment of ESC competencies in order to compare ideal self and real self-profiles of students attending two seminars (Ns = 37, 59) with different intent in terms of leadership (entrepreneurial vs. managerial career path). Findings supported the authors’ prediction that, through reflection on the ideal and real self, students can develop self-awareness as well as self-regulation of emotional and social competencies, which are preconditions for the discovery and the development of their leadership skills. In summary, this study demonstrates how the processes of identity formation and self-regulation during higher education are associated to different trajectories in future leadership development.

Finally, in Chapter 11, Vishal Rana, Peter J. Jordan, Zhou Jiang, and Herman H. M. Tse discuss job design in relation to job crafting, emotional state, and extra-role discretionary work behavior. The specific aspect of job design of interest to the authors is non-preferred work tasks (NPWT), which refers to tasks that may be significant to the job but are nevertheless not enjoyed by the employee. Using conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors develop a testable model that suggests that NPWT reduce the likelihood that employees will engage in extra-role behavior (contextual performance). Furthermore, they propose that job crafting and the individual’s emotional state moderate this relationship. Specifically, Rana and his team suggest that task, relational and cognitive job crafting will weaken the negative relationship between NPWT and contextual performance. Similarly, they suggest that positive affect will weaken this relationship, while negative affect will strengthen it.

Overall, the chapters in this volume show the importance of emotions in identifying with work at various levels and the role of identity in the emotional reaction of individuals to their work. Whether it is developing a collective identity through the catalyst of negative emotions or the interplay between emotion and gender to influence perceptions of personal success, identity is constantly being shaped by affective experiences. In turn, identity can also create and influence emotion, such as identifying with others through workplace friendships, and in reactions to workplace events that enhance or threaten identity. These contributions show the complex interplay between emotion and identity and highlight identity and emotion as rich areas for additional future inquiry. Taken together, this volume is a compilation of the latest research on emotion and identity from a diverse range of perspective, which shows the importance of considering the crucial role of emotion within and among identities at work.

Wilfred J. Zerbe

Charmine E. J. Härtel

Neal M. Ashkanasy

Laura Petitta

Editors

References

Ashkanasy (2003) Ashkanasy, N. M. (2003). Emotions in organizations: A multilevel perspective. In F. Dansereau & F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Research in multi-level issues (Vol. 2, pp. 954). Oxford: Elsevier Science.

Bem (1981) Bem, S. L. (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88(4), 354364. doi:10.1037/0033-295x.88.4.354

Breckler (1984) Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behavior, and cognition as distinct components of attitude. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1191.

Frijda (1986) Frijda, N. H. (1986). The emotions. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Larsen, Norris, McGraw, Hawkley, & Cacioppo (2009) Larsen, J. T. , Norris, C. J. , McGraw, A. P. , Hawkley, L. C. , & Cacioppo, J. T. (2009). The evaluative space grid: A single-item measure of positivity and negativity. Cognition and Emotion, 23(3), 453480. doi:10.1080/02699930801994054.

Markus & Kitayama (1991) Markus, H. R. , & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224.

Shaffer, Joplin, Bell, Lau, & Oguz (2000) Shaffer, M. A. , Joplin, J. R. W. , Bell, M. P. , Lau, T. , & Oguz, C. (2000). Disruptions to women’s social identity: A comparative stress experienced by women in three geographic regions. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 441456.

Tyler, Kramer, & John (2014) Tyler, T. R. , Kramer, R. M. , & John, O. P. (2014). The psychology of the social self. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Wach, Stephan, & Gorgievski (2015) Wach, D. , Stephan, U. , & Gorgievski, M. (2015). More than money: Developing an integrative multi-factorial measure of entrepreneurial success. International Small Business Journal. doi:10.1177/0266242615608469

Prelims
Section 1 Identity, Anger, Diversity
Chapter 1 Finding Positivity During a Major Organizational Change: In Search of Triggers of Employees’ Positive Perceptions and Feelings
Chapter 2 Responding to Injustice: Perception, Anger, and Identification as Drivers of Collective Action
Chapter 3 Experiences of Navigating Institutional Plurality – Social Position, Disposition, Emotions, and Apprehension
Section 2 Public Sector Settings
Chapter 4 Seeing Red? But for Whom? Exploring Experiences of Personal and Moral Anger in Nurses
Chapter 5 Detached Concern, Me and My Clients – Professionals’ Emotion Regulation, Burnout, and Patients’ Care Quality at Work
Section 3 Gender, Emotions and Identity
Chapter 6 Looking Beyond Biology: Does Psychological Sex-Role Matter More than Biological Sex for Emotional Intelligence? An Indian Perspective
Chapter 7 Examining the Relationship among Gender Role Orientation, Future-Oriented Emotions and Subjective Entrepreneurial Success
Chapter 8 Gender Self-Categorization, Emotions, and Experience of Aggression in a Male-Dominated Workforce
Section 4 Emotions and Identification with Work
Chapter 9 Placing Relationships in the Foreground: The Role of Workplace Friendships in Engagement
Chapter 10 Developing Leadership Identity and Emotional Competencies in Higher Education: Methodological Insights and Empirical Evidence from the Italian Context
Chapter 11 The Role of Job Crafting and Affect in the Relationship between Non-Preferred Work Tasks and Contextual Performance
Conference Reviewers
Index