The purpose of the current chapter is to meta-analytically examine the nomological network around emotional labor. The results show that negative display rules, high level of job demand, frequent contacts with customers, and lack of autonomy and social support are significantly related to surface acting, whereas display rules, opportunities to display various emotions, and frequent, intensive, and long time contacts with customers are significantly related to deep acting. Further, people high on negative affectivity and neuroticism are more likely to surface act, whereas people high on positive affectivity and extraversion are more likely to deep act. In addition, surface acting is mainly associated with undesirable work outcomes, whereas deep acting is mainly related to desirable work outcomes.
Wang, G., Seibert, S.E. and Boles, T.L. (2011), "Chapter 1 Synthesizing What We Know and Looking Ahead: A Meta-Analytical Review of 30 Years of Emotional Labor Research", Härtel, C.E.J., Ashkanasy, N.M. and Zerbe, W.J. (Ed.) What Have We Learned? Ten Years On (Research on Emotion in Organizations, Vol. 7), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 15-43. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1746-9791(2011)0000007006
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