The digital economy, which heralds the start of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR4), is upon us. What can history teach international business scholars about how firms are likely to respond to this new form of technological change? Who are the likely winners or the likely losers? For 30 years, the author has lived through, studied, and written about the Third Industrial Revolution and other major environmental shocks, ranging from new entrants to academia to regional integration to outbreak of war, looking at the fundamental issues of how individuals, firms, communities, and countries respond to and are affected by life-changing events. In this chapter, the author tells seven brief stories about living through and studying “shocks and responses.” Perhaps, some of these stories may provide useful lessons to the scholars of IR4.
Eden, L. (2018), "The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Seven Lessons from the Past", van Tulder, R., Verbeke, A. and Piscitello, L. (Ed.) International Business in the Information and Digital Age (Progress in International Business Research, Vol. 13), Emerald Publishing Limited, pp. 15-35. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1745-886220180000013002Download as .RIS
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