In the early 1990s, the single-party regime of the Mouvement Révolutionnaire Nationale pour le Développement (MRND), headed by President Juvénal Habyarimana, came under growing pressure both internally and externally. Rwanda experienced widespread destitution and famine as state revenues from coffee exports fell from an annual US $144 million in 1985 to a mere US $30 million in 1993 (Debiel, 2003, p. 166). A Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), imposed upon Rwanda by the Bretton Woods institutions in September 1991, was largely irrelevant, if not conducive, to the rising impoverishment of the Rwandan people (Chossudovsky, 1994, p. 21). Between 1989 and 1993, the proportion of the population consuming less than 1,000 calories a day doubled from 15 percent to 31 percent (Maton, 1994).
von Boemcken, M. (2009), "Chapter 7 UN arms embargoes in the Great Lakes, 1994–2004", Brzoska, M. and Lopez, G.A. (Ed.) Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes (Contributions to Conflict Management, Peace Economics and Development, Vol. 10), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 163-188. https://doi.org/10.1108/S1572-8323(2009)0000010011
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